In addition, prior to the study, the math department employed a more interactive
teaching style relative to economics. The math faculty could have been more
confident in implementing flipped classrooms due to the teaching styles of the
department. Additionally, instructor preferences could impact their effort and
teaching effectiveness. Figure 2 supports
this hypothesis: It plots individual instructor effects on student quiz scores
by whether instructors prefer flipped or standard lectures. Math instructors who
preferred flipped classrooms generate similar or larger learning gains for their
flipped classrooms relative to their standard lectures. In contrast, math
instructors who prefer standard classrooms are either equally effective in
flipped or standard classrooms, or more effective in standard lectures. Having a
math instructor who prefers teaching the flipped classroom is linked to an
approximate doubling of the flipped classroom treatment effect, although the
point estimate is noisy (see table 7).
All economics faculty prefer standard lectures and all but one instructor has a
stronger impact on their standard lecture students relative to their flipped
classroom students. This suggests that instructor preferences could play a role
in the impact of the flipped classroom.

Figure 2.

Table 7.

. | (1) . | (2) . | (3) . |
---|---|---|---|

In flipped classroom | 0.304^{***} | 0.151 | 0.152^{*} |

(0.062) | (0.097) | (0.092) | |

Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom | −0.006 | −0.112 | −0.135 |

(0.182) | (0.228) | (0.154) | |

Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom × In flipped classroom | 0.198^{*} | 0.168 | |

(0.116) | (0.108) | ||

Instructor and time block controls | X | X | X |

Demographic controls | X | ||

R^{2} | 0.083 | 0.085 | 0.206 |

N (Number of Students) | 785 | 785 | 785 |

Clusters (classroom) | 49 | 49 | 49 |

. | (1) . | (2) . | (3) . |
---|---|---|---|

In flipped classroom | 0.304^{***} | 0.151 | 0.152^{*} |

(0.062) | (0.097) | (0.092) | |

Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom | −0.006 | −0.112 | −0.135 |

(0.182) | (0.228) | (0.154) | |

Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom × In flipped classroom | 0.198^{*} | 0.168 | |

(0.116) | (0.108) | ||

Instructor and time block controls | X | X | X |

Demographic controls | X | ||

R^{2} | 0.083 | 0.085 | 0.206 |

N (Number of Students) | 785 | 785 | 785 |

Clusters (classroom) | 49 | 49 | 49 |

*Notes:* This table reports estimates from a
regression of unit-quiz exam scores on an indicator for being
assigned to a flipped classroom for students in the math
section. Columns 2 and 3 report estimates from regressions that
interact the flipped classroom indicator with an indicator for
whether the instructor preferred teaching a flipped classroom in
a post-study instructor survey. We do not report analogous
estimates for economics classrooms because all economics
instructors preferred the standard lecture format over the
flipped classroom format. All scores have been standardized to
have a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 and the controls
are the same as those described in table 5. Standard errors, clustered on classroom,
are reported in parentheses.

^{***}Significant at the 1%
level; ^{*}significant at the 10%
level.

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