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In addition, prior to the study, the math department employed a more interactive teaching style relative to economics. The math faculty could have been more confident in implementing flipped classrooms due to the teaching styles of the department. Additionally, instructor preferences could impact their effort and teaching effectiveness. Figure 2 supports this hypothesis: It plots individual instructor effects on student quiz scores by whether instructors prefer flipped or standard lectures. Math instructors who preferred flipped classrooms generate similar or larger learning gains for their flipped classrooms relative to their standard lectures. In contrast, math instructors who prefer standard classrooms are either equally effective in flipped or standard classrooms, or more effective in standard lectures. Having a math instructor who prefers teaching the flipped classroom is linked to an approximate doubling of the flipped classroom treatment effect, although the point estimate is noisy (see table 7). All economics faculty prefer standard lectures and all but one instructor has a stronger impact on their standard lecture students relative to their flipped classroom students. This suggests that instructor preferences could play a role in the impact of the flipped classroom.
Figure 2.
Instructor Treatment Effects by Subject and Preference

Notes: This figure plots the instructor-specific quiz effects by whether they preferred the flipped or standard classroom in a post-study survey. Estimates come from regressions of exam scores on an indicator for being assigned to a flipped classroom that include baseline demographic controls and class hour fixed effects. Larger circles reflect more precise estimates: circle size is weighted by the inverse variance of the effects.

Figure 2.
Instructor Treatment Effects by Subject and Preference

Notes: This figure plots the instructor-specific quiz effects by whether they preferred the flipped or standard classroom in a post-study survey. Estimates come from regressions of exam scores on an indicator for being assigned to a flipped classroom that include baseline demographic controls and class hour fixed effects. Larger circles reflect more precise estimates: circle size is weighted by the inverse variance of the effects.

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Table 7.

Effect of Math Instructor Preferences on Unit Quiz Score

(1)(2)(3)
In flipped classroom 0.304*** 0.151 0.152* 
 (0.062) (0.097) (0.092) 
Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom −0.006 −0.112 −0.135 
 (0.182) (0.228) (0.154) 
Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom × In flipped classroom  0.198* 0.168 
  (0.116) (0.108) 
Instructor and time block controls 
Demographic controls   
R2 0.083 0.085 0.206 
N (Number of Students) 785 785 785 
Clusters (classroom) 49 49 49 
(1)(2)(3)
In flipped classroom 0.304*** 0.151 0.152* 
 (0.062) (0.097) (0.092) 
Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom −0.006 −0.112 −0.135 
 (0.182) (0.228) (0.154) 
Instructor prefers teaching flipped classroom × In flipped classroom  0.198* 0.168 
  (0.116) (0.108) 
Instructor and time block controls 
Demographic controls   
R2 0.083 0.085 0.206 
N (Number of Students) 785 785 785 
Clusters (classroom) 49 49 49 

Notes: This table reports estimates from a regression of unit-quiz exam scores on an indicator for being assigned to a flipped classroom for students in the math section. Columns 2 and 3 report estimates from regressions that interact the flipped classroom indicator with an indicator for whether the instructor preferred teaching a flipped classroom in a post-study instructor survey. We do not report analogous estimates for economics classrooms because all economics instructors preferred the standard lecture format over the flipped classroom format. All scores have been standardized to have a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 and the controls are the same as those described in table 5. Standard errors, clustered on classroom, are reported in parentheses.

***Significant at the 1% level; *significant at the 10% level.

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