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Table 1 panel A shows summary statistics for our estimation sample. Thirty-nine percent of students are female. The average age of students is 21.2 years and a majority of them are either Dutch (31 percent) or German (44 percent). On average, we observe each student for 7.6 different courses in our estimation sample.

Table 1.

Descriptive Statistics

NMeanSDMinimumMaximumρ
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A: Individual Characteristics 
Student level       
Female 10,898 0.39 0.49 0.00 1.00  
Age, years 10,898 21.17 2.50 15.93 44.25  
Dutch 10,898 0.31 0.46 0.00 1.00  
German 10,898 0.44 0.50 0.00 1.00  
Bachelor's student 10,898 0.64 0.44 0.00 1.00  
Courses per student 10,898 7.63 6.27 1.00 33.00  
Instructor level       
Student instructor 731 0.46 0.49  
PhD student instructor 731 0.23 0.41  
Senior instructor 731 0.31 0.45  
Instructor-course level       
Sections per course 2,928 2.49 0.98 1.00 4.00  
Panel B: Student Outcomes 
Academic outcomes       
Grade 77,269 6.70 1.76 10  
Dropout 83,195 0.07 0.26  
Course evaluation survey responses       
Evaluate the overall functioning of your tutor in this course with a grade (1—10) 27,144 7.77 1.98 10 0.94 
The tutor sufficiently mastered the course content (1—5) 27,144 4.31 0.95 0.82 
The tutor stimulated the transfer of what I learned in this course to other contexts (1—5) 27,144 3.94 1.08 0.87 
The tutor encouraged all students to participate in the (tutorial) group discussions (1—5) 27,144 3.60 1.18 0.74 
The tutor was enthusiastic in guiding our group (1—5) 27,144 4.07 1.10 0.87 
The tutor initiated evaluation of the group functioning (1—5) 27,144 3.64 1.22 0.68 
Self-study hours per week 26,918 14.25 8.32 90  
NMeanSDMinimumMaximumρ
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A: Individual Characteristics 
Student level       
Female 10,898 0.39 0.49 0.00 1.00  
Age, years 10,898 21.17 2.50 15.93 44.25  
Dutch 10,898 0.31 0.46 0.00 1.00  
German 10,898 0.44 0.50 0.00 1.00  
Bachelor's student 10,898 0.64 0.44 0.00 1.00  
Courses per student 10,898 7.63 6.27 1.00 33.00  
Instructor level       
Student instructor 731 0.46 0.49  
PhD student instructor 731 0.23 0.41  
Senior instructor 731 0.31 0.45  
Instructor-course level       
Sections per course 2,928 2.49 0.98 1.00 4.00  
Panel B: Student Outcomes 
Academic outcomes       
Grade 77,269 6.70 1.76 10  
Dropout 83,195 0.07 0.26  
Course evaluation survey responses       
Evaluate the overall functioning of your tutor in this course with a grade (1—10) 27,144 7.77 1.98 10 0.94 
The tutor sufficiently mastered the course content (1—5) 27,144 4.31 0.95 0.82 
The tutor stimulated the transfer of what I learned in this course to other contexts (1—5) 27,144 3.94 1.08 0.87 
The tutor encouraged all students to participate in the (tutorial) group discussions (1—5) 27,144 3.60 1.18 0.74 
The tutor was enthusiastic in guiding our group (1—5) 27,144 4.07 1.10 0.87 
The tutor initiated evaluation of the group functioning (1—5) 27,144 3.64 1.22 0.68 
Self-study hours per week 26,918 14.25 8.32 90  

Notes: This table is based on our estimation sample. Column 6 reports the correlation between our composite index for course evalutions with each of its six consitutent items. SD = standard deviation.

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