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Table 2 reports estimates from a regression of students’ pre-enrollment characteristics on section order indicators, and controls for section start time and instructor-course-parallel-course fixed effects. Out of the twelve coefficients estimated, we see no statistically significant differences in characteristics at the 5 percent level and only one at the 10 percent level. While student GPA is marginally lower in the fourth section relative to the first, the section-order coefficients from the GPA regression (or any other regression in table 2) are not jointly significant. Overall, these results show that pre-enrollment characteristics across an instructor's sections are roughly balanced, conditional on controls.

Table 2.

Randomization Check

Grade Point AverageFemaleID RankAge
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)
2nd section −0.045 0.012 −117.934 0.021 
 (−0.111 to 0.021) (−0.011 to 0.035) (−331.298 to 95.430) (−0.064 to 0.106) 
3rd section −0.092 0.014 −280.668 0.099 
 (−0.208 to 0.024) (−0.028 to 0.055) (−647.187 to 85.851) (−0.044 to 0.242) 
4th section −0.138* 0.035 −321.486 0.126 
 (−0.302 to 0.026) (−0.024 to 0.095) (−832.994 to 190.022) (−0.076 to 0.327) 
     
Observations 83,195 83,195 83,195 83,195 
R2 0.213 0.176 0.147 0.558 
Section 1 average outcome 6.627 .37 7,062.193 20.935 
p-value joint significance of all section variables .4294 .3154 .4306 .1305 
Grade Point AverageFemaleID RankAge
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)
2nd section −0.045 0.012 −117.934 0.021 
 (−0.111 to 0.021) (−0.011 to 0.035) (−331.298 to 95.430) (−0.064 to 0.106) 
3rd section −0.092 0.014 −280.668 0.099 
 (−0.208 to 0.024) (−0.028 to 0.055) (−647.187 to 85.851) (−0.044 to 0.242) 
4th section −0.138* 0.035 −321.486 0.126 
 (−0.302 to 0.026) (−0.024 to 0.095) (−832.994 to 190.022) (−0.076 to 0.327) 
     
Observations 83,195 83,195 83,195 83,195 
R2 0.213 0.176 0.147 0.558 
Section 1 average outcome 6.627 .37 7,062.193 20.935 
p-value joint significance of all section variables .4294 .3154 .4306 .1305 

Notes: All regressions include instructor-course-parallel-course fixed effects and indicator variables for section starting times. 95 percent confidence intervals based on standard errors clustered at the course-level are in parentheses.

*p < 0.1.

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