We begin by estimating the effects of teaching repetition on standardized grades.
The estimates in column 1 of table 3 support the conclusion that instructors cannot take experience gained in one
section, and quickly apply it in subsequent sections in a way that improves
student performance. Average grades in instructors’ second sections are
actually lower than in their first, but the decrease is less than 1 percent of a
standard deviation and not statistically significant. The 95 percent confidence
interval of this estimate allows us to rule out effects below −5.1
percent and above 3.4 of a standard deviation. For comparison, Williams and
Shapiro (2018) find a 3 percent of a
standard deviation improvement in average student grades for instructors’
second section compared with their first.^{6} Similarly, De Vlieger, Jacob, and Stange (2018) find that students perform 3 to 4
percent of a standard deviation better on the final exam if the instructor has
taught the course at least once before.

Table 3.

. | Standard Grade . | Dropout . | Standard Evaluation . | Hours . |
---|---|---|---|---|

Dependent Variable . | (1) . | (2) . | (3) . | (4) . |

2nd section | −0.008 | 0.004 | 0.050 | −0.302 |

(−0.051 to 0.034) | (−0.008 to 0.016) | (−0.065 to 0.166) | (−1.123 to 0.519) | |

3rd section | 0.012 | 0.008 | 0.083 | −0.839 |

(−0.064 to 0.087) | (−0.014 to 0.030) | (−0.118 to 0.284) | (−2.226 to 0.548) | |

4th section | 0.018 | 0.009 | 0.132 | −1.159 |

(−0.088 to 0.124) | (−0.021 to 0.040) | (−0.142 to 0.407) | (−3.135 to 0.816) | |

Observations | 77,269 | 83,195 | 27,144 | 26,918 |

R^{2} | 0.569 | 0.290 | 0.551 | 0.412 |

Section 1 average outcome | .028 | .072 | −.033 | 14.415 |

p-value joint significance of all section
variables | .4221 | .9020 | .7966 | .5536 |

. | Standard Grade . | Dropout . | Standard Evaluation . | Hours . |
---|---|---|---|---|

Dependent Variable . | (1) . | (2) . | (3) . | (4) . |

2nd section | −0.008 | 0.004 | 0.050 | −0.302 |

(−0.051 to 0.034) | (−0.008 to 0.016) | (−0.065 to 0.166) | (−1.123 to 0.519) | |

3rd section | 0.012 | 0.008 | 0.083 | −0.839 |

(−0.064 to 0.087) | (−0.014 to 0.030) | (−0.118 to 0.284) | (−2.226 to 0.548) | |

4th section | 0.018 | 0.009 | 0.132 | −1.159 |

(−0.088 to 0.124) | (−0.021 to 0.040) | (−0.142 to 0.407) | (−3.135 to 0.816) | |

Observations | 77,269 | 83,195 | 27,144 | 26,918 |

R^{2} | 0.569 | 0.290 | 0.551 | 0.412 |

Section 1 average outcome | .028 | .072 | −.033 | 14.415 |

p-value joint significance of all section
variables | .4221 | .9020 | .7966 | .5536 |

*Notes:* All regressions include fixed effects for
instructor-course-parallel-course combinations and section
starting time, cubic polynomials for student grade point average
and age, and indicators for student gender and nationality. 95
percent confidence intervals based on standard errors clustered
at the course level are in parentheses.

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