Skip to Main Content

Table 5 shows the estimates of this fully interacted model. We see no evidence that having a break significantly changes the effects of teaching repetition. None of the eight interaction terms is significant at the 10 percent level. Although these coefficients are less precisely estimated, the direction of the point estimates shows no obvious pattern: Three coefficients suggest having a break increases the benefits of section repetition (e.g., increases grades, lowers dropout rates), and five coefficients suggest the opposite. The F-test for joint significance of all interaction terms does not support the hypothesis that having a break modulates the repetition effect for any of the outcomes we look at. Overall, we interpret these findings as evidence that potential positive effects from repetition are not modulated by short-term fatigue.10

Table 5.

The Effects of Repetition with and without Break before Section

Standard GradeDropoutStandard EvaluationHours
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)
2nd section 0.000 0.006 0.024 −0.195 
 (−0.052 to 0.053) (−0.008 to 0.021) (−0.115 to 0.164) (−1.130 to 0.740) 
3rd section 0.031 0.015 0.017 −0.576 
 (−0.073 to 0.135) (−0.014 to 0.043) (−0.250 to 0.284) (−2.244 to 1.092) 
4th section 0.046 0.017 0.044 −0.801 
 (−0.100 to 0.191) (−0.022 to 0.056) (−0.326 to 0.414) (−3.155 to 1.553) 
2nd section × break 0.016 0.011 −0.076 0.281 
 (−0.049 to 0.081) (−0.009 to 0.031) (−0.226 to 0.074) (−0.858 to 1.421) 
3rd section × break 0.022 −0.002 −0.037 0.188 
 (−0.042 to 0.086) (−0.023 to 0.019) (−0.204 to 0.130) (−1.222 to 1.598) 
Observations 77,269 83,195 27,144 26,918 
R2 0.569 0.290 0.551 0.412 
Section 1 average outcome .028 .072 −.033 14.415 
p-value joint significance of all break interactions 0.7565 .5081 .609 0.8711 
p-value joint significance of all section variables + interactions .6544 .8682 .7510 .8142 
Standard GradeDropoutStandard EvaluationHours
Dependent Variable(1)(2)(3)(4)
2nd section 0.000 0.006 0.024 −0.195 
 (−0.052 to 0.053) (−0.008 to 0.021) (−0.115 to 0.164) (−1.130 to 0.740) 
3rd section 0.031 0.015 0.017 −0.576 
 (−0.073 to 0.135) (−0.014 to 0.043) (−0.250 to 0.284) (−2.244 to 1.092) 
4th section 0.046 0.017 0.044 −0.801 
 (−0.100 to 0.191) (−0.022 to 0.056) (−0.326 to 0.414) (−3.155 to 1.553) 
2nd section × break 0.016 0.011 −0.076 0.281 
 (−0.049 to 0.081) (−0.009 to 0.031) (−0.226 to 0.074) (−0.858 to 1.421) 
3rd section × break 0.022 −0.002 −0.037 0.188 
 (−0.042 to 0.086) (−0.023 to 0.019) (−0.204 to 0.130) (−1.222 to 1.598) 
Observations 77,269 83,195 27,144 26,918 
R2 0.569 0.290 0.551 0.412 
Section 1 average outcome .028 .072 −.033 14.415 
p-value joint significance of all break interactions 0.7565 .5081 .609 0.8711 
p-value joint significance of all section variables + interactions .6544 .8682 .7510 .8142 

Notes: All regressions include instructor-course-parallel-course fixed effects. Additional controls include cubic polynomials for student age and grade point average as well as indicator variables for section starting time, student gender, and student nationality. The reference group is the same as in table 3, that is, students taught in an instructor's first section. 95 percent confidence intervals based on standard errors clustered at the course level are in parentheses.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal