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Table 3.
Comparing Insurgent and Counterinsurgent Advantages
Favor Insurgent (White Supremacists)Favor Counterinsurgent (Federal Government)
Structural Factors economic and governance problems in the South
weapons and organizational endowments from the pre-Reconstruction era 
proscription hinders white political mobilization
decisive military victory in the Civil War
rapid Black mobilization
strong political will and casualty tolerance 
Federal-Level Policy Factors President Andrew Johnson's open racism and hostility to Black rights
lack of clear, shared goals and priorities among leading civilian and military figures
insufficient troops
weak mandate for the use of force (with the exception of the Enforcement Acts)
weak civilian capacity
lack of long-term planning
lack of conditionality for withdrawal 
President Ulysses S. Grant's strong support for Reconstruction, the important role of congressional leaders, and support for Black rights by many U.S. military commanders 
Local Policy Factors failure to install governments perceived as legitimate
insufficient local collaborators to assist federal forces 
 
Favor Insurgent (White Supremacists)Favor Counterinsurgent (Federal Government)
Structural Factors economic and governance problems in the South
weapons and organizational endowments from the pre-Reconstruction era 
proscription hinders white political mobilization
decisive military victory in the Civil War
rapid Black mobilization
strong political will and casualty tolerance 
Federal-Level Policy Factors President Andrew Johnson's open racism and hostility to Black rights
lack of clear, shared goals and priorities among leading civilian and military figures
insufficient troops
weak mandate for the use of force (with the exception of the Enforcement Acts)
weak civilian capacity
lack of long-term planning
lack of conditionality for withdrawal 
President Ulysses S. Grant's strong support for Reconstruction, the important role of congressional leaders, and support for Black rights by many U.S. military commanders 
Local Policy Factors failure to install governments perceived as legitimate
insufficient local collaborators to assist federal forces 
 
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