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Table 1. 

Participants' Characteristics and Raw Scores (Mean, Standard Deviation, and Ranges) on the Neuropsychological Tests


Young Adults
Older Adults
p
Mean
Standard Deviation
Ranges
Mean
Standard Deviation
Ranges
Age 19  18–20 72  63–77  
Years of education 14.4 1.0 13–16 16.2 1.7 14–20 <.01 
Mini-Mental State Examination 28.9 1.0 27–30 29.4 1.0 27–30 ns 
CVLTa immediate free recall 12.2 2.6 8–16 11.1 3.0 5–15 ns 
CVLTa immediate cued recall 12.6 2.0 9–16 12.3 2.1 9–15 ns 
CVLTa delayed free recall 11.9 2.7 8–16 10.8 2.4 6–14 ns 
CVLTa delayed cued recall 12.4 1.9 9–16 12.1 2.2 7–15 ns 
NYUb paragraph immediate recall 7.4 2.6 4–10 6.8 1.8 3–10.5 ns 
NYUb,c paragraph delay recall 10.7 3.3 7–19 9.1 2.2 6–11.5 ns 
Forward/Backward Digit Spanc 18.8 2.0 17–23 17.1 3.7 12–23 ns 
Digit/Symbol Substitution Test 62.4 10.3 47–84 43.3 8.9 26–57 <.001 
Trail Making Test A 22.9 8.8 13–48 30.8 4.2 22–40 <.01 
Trail Making Test B 49.8 17.0 24–91 94.1 43.1 53–194 <.001 
Letter fluency 44.2 12.0 26–81 47.0 13.2 20–73 ns 
Category fluency 21.8 4.7 13–30 18.9 3.9 9–26 ns 
WTAR FSIQd 112.1 6.4 99–119 114.2 4.1 104–119 ns 
Beck Depression Inventory 5.1 4.0 0–12 4.4 3.1 0–9 ns 

Young Adults
Older Adults
p
Mean
Standard Deviation
Ranges
Mean
Standard Deviation
Ranges
Age 19  18–20 72  63–77  
Years of education 14.4 1.0 13–16 16.2 1.7 14–20 <.01 
Mini-Mental State Examination 28.9 1.0 27–30 29.4 1.0 27–30 ns 
CVLTa immediate free recall 12.2 2.6 8–16 11.1 3.0 5–15 ns 
CVLTa immediate cued recall 12.6 2.0 9–16 12.3 2.1 9–15 ns 
CVLTa delayed free recall 11.9 2.7 8–16 10.8 2.4 6–14 ns 
CVLTa delayed cued recall 12.4 1.9 9–16 12.1 2.2 7–15 ns 
NYUb paragraph immediate recall 7.4 2.6 4–10 6.8 1.8 3–10.5 ns 
NYUb,c paragraph delay recall 10.7 3.3 7–19 9.1 2.2 6–11.5 ns 
Forward/Backward Digit Spanc 18.8 2.0 17–23 17.1 3.7 12–23 ns 
Digit/Symbol Substitution Test 62.4 10.3 47–84 43.3 8.9 26–57 <.001 
Trail Making Test A 22.9 8.8 13–48 30.8 4.2 22–40 <.01 
Trail Making Test B 49.8 17.0 24–91 94.1 43.1 53–194 <.001 
Letter fluency 44.2 12.0 26–81 47.0 13.2 20–73 ns 
Category fluency 21.8 4.7 13–30 18.9 3.9 9–26 ns 
WTAR FSIQd 112.1 6.4 99–119 114.2 4.1 104–119 ns 
Beck Depression Inventory 5.1 4.0 0–12 4.4 3.1 0–9 ns 
a

California Verbal Learning Test.

b

New York University.

c

Data available for 15 older subjects.

d

Wechsler Test of Adult Reading Full Scale Intellectual Quotient.

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