Skip to Main Content
Table 3. 

Participant Characteristics

Participant Variable
Component
Score
Self-rated skilla Speaking 
Listening 
Writing 
Reading 
Grammar 
Pronunciation 
Self-rated attitudea Valence toward L2 usage 
Confidence in L2 usage 
Importance of L2 usage 
Valence toward L2 learning in general 
Ease of L2 learning in general 
Age/exposure Age (mean, range in years) 23.0, 11 
Age of acquisition (mean, years) 11.8 
L2 learning duration (median, years) 
Expose rate (mean; hr/month) 0.3 
Test performance Goethe Institute Test (mean; out of 30) 16.8b 
NL–DE noun/adjective matching (mean; out of 44) 43.7 
Gender choice (mean; out of 40) 38.6 
Participant Variable
Component
Score
Self-rated skilla Speaking 
Listening 
Writing 
Reading 
Grammar 
Pronunciation 
Self-rated attitudea Valence toward L2 usage 
Confidence in L2 usage 
Importance of L2 usage 
Valence toward L2 learning in general 
Ease of L2 learning in general 
Age/exposure Age (mean, range in years) 23.0, 11 
Age of acquisition (mean, years) 11.8 
L2 learning duration (median, years) 
Expose rate (mean; hr/month) 0.3 
Test performance Goethe Institute Test (mean; out of 30) 16.8b 
NL–DE noun/adjective matching (mean; out of 44) 43.7 
Gender choice (mean; out of 40) 38.6 
a

Median ratings on a 5-point scale with 5 as highest level of skill, or most positive attitude.

b

European Reference Frame Level B2 (Independent User).

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal