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Table 1. 

Studies Included in the Meta-analysis

Study
Method
n
Age
Experimental Paradigm
Modality
Emotion
Aalto et al. (2002) PET 11f 18–44 Mood induction V (Films) 
Aalto et al. (2005) fMRI 11f 33.4 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Abel et al. (2003) fMRI 8m N/A Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Abler, Erk, Herwig, and Walter (2007) fMRI 12f 40.7 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Ashwin, Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, O'Riordan, and Bullmore (2007) fMRI 13m 25.6 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Baker, Frith, and Dolan (1997) fMRI 10m 18–35 Mood induction V (Scripts/Music) H S 
Beauregard et al. (1998) fMRI 3m, 4f 45 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Benuzzi et al. (2004) fMRI 7m, 7f 21–27 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Benuzzi, Lui, Duzzi, Nichelli, and Porro (2008) fMRI 15f 23.5 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Blair et al. (1999) PET 13m 25 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Buchanan et al. (2000) fMRI 10m 22–40 Emotional prosody A (Voices) H S 
Bystritsky et al. (2001) fMRI 3m, 3f 31.8 Mood induction A (Autobio Scripts) 
Damasio et al. (2000) PET 53mix N/A Induced mood Autobio Recall H S A F 
Dolan et al. (1996) PET 8m 23 Viewing facial emotions V (Faces) 
Dougherty et al. (1999) PET 8m 25 Mood induction A (Autobio Scripts) 
Eugene et al. (2003) fMRI 10f 24 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Fischer et al. (2005) fMRI 11m, 11f 74.1 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Fitzgerald et al. (2004) fMRI 7m, 5f 31.2 Mood induction Autobio Recall 
Fitzgerald, Angstadt, Jelsone, Nathan, and Phan (2006) fMRI 10m, 10f 26 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S A F D 
George et al. (1995) PET 11f N/A Induced mood Autobio Recall/V (Faces) 
George, Ketter, Parekh, Herscovitch, and Post (1996) PET 10m, 10f 35 Induced mood Autobio Recall/V (Faces) H S 
Goldin et al. (2005) fMRI 13f 19.7 Viewing emotional films V (Films) H S 
Grandjean et al. (2005) fMRI 8m, 7f 24.4 Emotional prosody A (Pseudo Sentences) 
Grosbras and Paus (2005) fMRI 10m, 10f 28.6 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Habel, Klein, Kellermann, Shah, and Schneider (2005) fMRI 26m 33.4 Mood induction V (Faces) H S 
Hadjikhani et al. (2003) fMRI 4m, 3f N/A Viewing bodily expressions V (Bodily Expressions) 
Hariri, Mattay, Tessitore, Fera, and Weinberger (2003) fMRI 5m, 6f 32 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Harris and Fiske (2007) fMRI 10mix N/A Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Hutcherson et al. (2005) fMRI 28f 18–21 Viewing emotional films V (Films) H S 
Kesler/West et al. (2001) fMRI 11m, 10f 21.6 Processing facial emotions V (Faces) H S A F 
Killgore and Yurgelun-Todd (2004) fMRI 12f 23.7 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Kilts, Egan, Gideon, Ely, and Hoffman (2003) fMRI 9m, 4f 24.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H A 
Kimbrell et al. (1999) PET 10m, 8f 31.2, 34.7 Induced mood Autobio Recall 
Lane, Reiman, Ahern, Schwartz, and Davidson (1997) PET 12f 23.3 Induced mood V (Film)/Recall H S D 
Lange et al. (2003) fMRI 9m 29 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Lemche et al. (2007) fMRI 5f, 7m 27.3 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Lennox, Jacob, Calder, Lupson, and Bullmore (2004) fMRI 6m, 6f 32.6 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Liddell et al. (2005) fMRI 11m, 11f 32 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Liotti et al. (2000) PET 8f N/A Mood induction V (Autobio Scripts) 
Mayberg et al. (1999) PET 8f 36 Mood induction V (Autobio Scripts) 
Michalopoulou et al. (2008) fMRI 5m, 4f 32 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Mitterschiffthaler, Fu, Dalton, Andrew, and Williams (2007) fMRI 8m, 8f 30.8 Mood induction A (Music) H S 
Moll et al. (2005) fMRI 7m, 6f 22.5 Mood induction V (Statements) 
Morris et al. (1998) PET 4m, 1f 42.8 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H F 
Ottowitz et al. (2004) fMRI 8f 18–30 Mood induction V (Sentences) 
Paradiso et al. (1997) PET 2m, 6f 62.6 Viewing emotional films V (Film Clips) H D 
Paradiso, Robinson, Boles Ponto, Watkins, and Hichwa (2003) fMRI 9m, 8f 65 Mood induction V (Faces/Pictures) 
Pardo, Pardo, and Raichle (1993) PET 3f 24 Mood induction Imagery 
Pelletier et al. (2003) fMRI 5m, 4f 33 Mood induction V (Autobio Recall) H S 
Phillips et al. (1997) fMRI 2m, 5f 27 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) F D 
Phillips, Bullmore, et al. (1998) fMRI 7m, 1f 32 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Phillips, Young, et al. (1998) fMRI 6m 37 Vocal expressions V (Faces)/A (Vocal) F D 
Phillips et al. (1999) fMRI 5mix 30 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) A F D 
Phillips et al. (2000) fMRI 7m, 7f 31 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Phillips et al. (2004) fMRI 5m, 5f 29.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) F D 
Pietrini, Guazzelli, Basso, Jaffe, and Grafman (2000) PET 8m, 7f 22 Mood induction Imagery 
Pine et al. (2001) fMRI 10m, 10f 13.9, 28.5 Visual masking paradigm V (Faces) H F 
Salloum et al. (2007) fMRI 11m 36 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S A F D 
Sambataro et al. (2006) fMRI 11m, 13f 26.8 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Sato, Kochiyama, Yoshikawa, Naito, and Matsamura (2004) fMRI 10m, 12f 26.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Dynamic Faces) H F 
Schafer, Schienle, and Vaitl (2005) fMRI 20m, 20f 23.93 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Schienle et al. (2002) fMRI 12f 26.3 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 
Schienle, Schäfer, Walter, Stark, and Vaitl (2005) fMRI 63f 27.3 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Schienle et al. (2006) fMRI 12f 19–41 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 
Shapira et al. (2003) fMRI 3m, 5f 38 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Sprengelmeyer, Rausch, Eysel, and Przuntek (1998) fMRI 2m, 4f 23.5 Recognition of facial expressions V (Faces) A F D 
Stark et al. (2003) fMRI 4m, 11f 29.1 Viewing emotional films V (Pictures) F D 
Stark et al. (2005) fMRI 6m N/A Viewing emotional pictures V (Films) F D 
Stark et al. (2007) fMRI 34m, 32f 24.7 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 
Takahashi et al. (2008) fMRI 8m, 8f 21.5 Mood induction V (Sentences) 
Thielscher and Pessoa (2007) fMRI 10m, 15f 23 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) F D 
Vuilleumier and Pourtois (2007) fMRI 12mix N/A Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Wang, McCarthy, Song, and LaBar (2005) fMRI 5m, 7f 25.9 Visual oddball task V (Pictures) 
Whalen et al. (1998) fMRI 4m, 4f 25 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) A F 
Wicker et al. (2003) fMRI 14m N/A Mood induction 
Williams et al. (2001) fMRI 11m 30 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Williams et al. (2004) fMRI 15m, 7f 27.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Williams et al. (2005) fMRI 5m, 8f 24 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) A F D 
Winston, Vuilleumier, and Dolan (2003) fMRI 6m, 8f 30 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Wright, He, Shapira, Goodman, and Liu (2004) fMRI 4m, 4f 20–26 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 
Study
Method
n
Age
Experimental Paradigm
Modality
Emotion
Aalto et al. (2002) PET 11f 18–44 Mood induction V (Films) 
Aalto et al. (2005) fMRI 11f 33.4 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Abel et al. (2003) fMRI 8m N/A Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Abler, Erk, Herwig, and Walter (2007) fMRI 12f 40.7 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Ashwin, Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, O'Riordan, and Bullmore (2007) fMRI 13m 25.6 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Baker, Frith, and Dolan (1997) fMRI 10m 18–35 Mood induction V (Scripts/Music) H S 
Beauregard et al. (1998) fMRI 3m, 4f 45 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Benuzzi et al. (2004) fMRI 7m, 7f 21–27 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Benuzzi, Lui, Duzzi, Nichelli, and Porro (2008) fMRI 15f 23.5 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Blair et al. (1999) PET 13m 25 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Buchanan et al. (2000) fMRI 10m 22–40 Emotional prosody A (Voices) H S 
Bystritsky et al. (2001) fMRI 3m, 3f 31.8 Mood induction A (Autobio Scripts) 
Damasio et al. (2000) PET 53mix N/A Induced mood Autobio Recall H S A F 
Dolan et al. (1996) PET 8m 23 Viewing facial emotions V (Faces) 
Dougherty et al. (1999) PET 8m 25 Mood induction A (Autobio Scripts) 
Eugene et al. (2003) fMRI 10f 24 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Fischer et al. (2005) fMRI 11m, 11f 74.1 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Fitzgerald et al. (2004) fMRI 7m, 5f 31.2 Mood induction Autobio Recall 
Fitzgerald, Angstadt, Jelsone, Nathan, and Phan (2006) fMRI 10m, 10f 26 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S A F D 
George et al. (1995) PET 11f N/A Induced mood Autobio Recall/V (Faces) 
George, Ketter, Parekh, Herscovitch, and Post (1996) PET 10m, 10f 35 Induced mood Autobio Recall/V (Faces) H S 
Goldin et al. (2005) fMRI 13f 19.7 Viewing emotional films V (Films) H S 
Grandjean et al. (2005) fMRI 8m, 7f 24.4 Emotional prosody A (Pseudo Sentences) 
Grosbras and Paus (2005) fMRI 10m, 10f 28.6 Viewing emotional films V (Films) 
Habel, Klein, Kellermann, Shah, and Schneider (2005) fMRI 26m 33.4 Mood induction V (Faces) H S 
Hadjikhani et al. (2003) fMRI 4m, 3f N/A Viewing bodily expressions V (Bodily Expressions) 
Hariri, Mattay, Tessitore, Fera, and Weinberger (2003) fMRI 5m, 6f 32 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Harris and Fiske (2007) fMRI 10mix N/A Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Hutcherson et al. (2005) fMRI 28f 18–21 Viewing emotional films V (Films) H S 
Kesler/West et al. (2001) fMRI 11m, 10f 21.6 Processing facial emotions V (Faces) H S A F 
Killgore and Yurgelun-Todd (2004) fMRI 12f 23.7 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Kilts, Egan, Gideon, Ely, and Hoffman (2003) fMRI 9m, 4f 24.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H A 
Kimbrell et al. (1999) PET 10m, 8f 31.2, 34.7 Induced mood Autobio Recall 
Lane, Reiman, Ahern, Schwartz, and Davidson (1997) PET 12f 23.3 Induced mood V (Film)/Recall H S D 
Lange et al. (2003) fMRI 9m 29 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Lemche et al. (2007) fMRI 5f, 7m 27.3 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Lennox, Jacob, Calder, Lupson, and Bullmore (2004) fMRI 6m, 6f 32.6 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Liddell et al. (2005) fMRI 11m, 11f 32 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Liotti et al. (2000) PET 8f N/A Mood induction V (Autobio Scripts) 
Mayberg et al. (1999) PET 8f 36 Mood induction V (Autobio Scripts) 
Michalopoulou et al. (2008) fMRI 5m, 4f 32 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Mitterschiffthaler, Fu, Dalton, Andrew, and Williams (2007) fMRI 8m, 8f 30.8 Mood induction A (Music) H S 
Moll et al. (2005) fMRI 7m, 6f 22.5 Mood induction V (Statements) 
Morris et al. (1998) PET 4m, 1f 42.8 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H F 
Ottowitz et al. (2004) fMRI 8f 18–30 Mood induction V (Sentences) 
Paradiso et al. (1997) PET 2m, 6f 62.6 Viewing emotional films V (Film Clips) H D 
Paradiso, Robinson, Boles Ponto, Watkins, and Hichwa (2003) fMRI 9m, 8f 65 Mood induction V (Faces/Pictures) 
Pardo, Pardo, and Raichle (1993) PET 3f 24 Mood induction Imagery 
Pelletier et al. (2003) fMRI 5m, 4f 33 Mood induction V (Autobio Recall) H S 
Phillips et al. (1997) fMRI 2m, 5f 27 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) F D 
Phillips, Bullmore, et al. (1998) fMRI 7m, 1f 32 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S 
Phillips, Young, et al. (1998) fMRI 6m 37 Vocal expressions V (Faces)/A (Vocal) F D 
Phillips et al. (1999) fMRI 5mix 30 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) A F D 
Phillips et al. (2000) fMRI 7m, 7f 31 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Phillips et al. (2004) fMRI 5m, 5f 29.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) F D 
Pietrini, Guazzelli, Basso, Jaffe, and Grafman (2000) PET 8m, 7f 22 Mood induction Imagery 
Pine et al. (2001) fMRI 10m, 10f 13.9, 28.5 Visual masking paradigm V (Faces) H F 
Salloum et al. (2007) fMRI 11m 36 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) H S A F D 
Sambataro et al. (2006) fMRI 11m, 13f 26.8 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Sato, Kochiyama, Yoshikawa, Naito, and Matsamura (2004) fMRI 10m, 12f 26.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Dynamic Faces) H F 
Schafer, Schienle, and Vaitl (2005) fMRI 20m, 20f 23.93 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Schienle et al. (2002) fMRI 12f 26.3 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 
Schienle, Schäfer, Walter, Stark, and Vaitl (2005) fMRI 63f 27.3 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Schienle et al. (2006) fMRI 12f 19–41 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 
Shapira et al. (2003) fMRI 3m, 5f 38 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) 
Sprengelmeyer, Rausch, Eysel, and Przuntek (1998) fMRI 2m, 4f 23.5 Recognition of facial expressions V (Faces) A F D 
Stark et al. (2003) fMRI 4m, 11f 29.1 Viewing emotional films V (Pictures) F D 
Stark et al. (2005) fMRI 6m N/A Viewing emotional pictures V (Films) F D 
Stark et al. (2007) fMRI 34m, 32f 24.7 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 
Takahashi et al. (2008) fMRI 8m, 8f 21.5 Mood induction V (Sentences) 
Thielscher and Pessoa (2007) fMRI 10m, 15f 23 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) F D 
Vuilleumier and Pourtois (2007) fMRI 12mix N/A Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Wang, McCarthy, Song, and LaBar (2005) fMRI 5m, 7f 25.9 Visual oddball task V (Pictures) 
Whalen et al. (1998) fMRI 4m, 4f 25 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) A F 
Wicker et al. (2003) fMRI 14m N/A Mood induction 
Williams et al. (2001) fMRI 11m 30 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Williams et al. (2004) fMRI 15m, 7f 27.5 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Williams et al. (2005) fMRI 5m, 8f 24 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) A F D 
Winston, Vuilleumier, and Dolan (2003) fMRI 6m, 8f 30 Viewing facial expressions V (Faces) 
Wright, He, Shapira, Goodman, and Liu (2004) fMRI 4m, 4f 20–26 Viewing emotional pictures V (Pictures) F D 

Characteristics of all studies included in the meta-analysis. Abbreviations for stimulus modality: V = visual; A = auditory; O = olfactory; for emotion category: H = happiness; S = sadness; A = anger; F = fear; D = disgust; experimental paradigm: Autobio = autobiographical.

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