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Table 1. 

Behavioral Results

Group
TOAL-3 Speaking Grammar
TOAL-3 Listening Grammar*
Saffran and Schwartz**
Carpenter Span**
Native Speakers (n = 17, 7 F) 
M (SD17.06 (3.36) 19.00 (7.98) 74.29 (3.08) 2.79 (.53) 
Range 9–22 7–32 67–78 2–4 
Percentile 16 25 N/A N/A 
 
Nonnative Speakers (n = 18, 8 F) 
M (SD15.11 (4.07) 28.17 (4.20) 70.61 (5.22) 3.22 (.52) 
Range 5–20 21–34 57–77 2–4 
Percentile N/A N/A N/A N/A 
Group
TOAL-3 Speaking Grammar
TOAL-3 Listening Grammar*
Saffran and Schwartz**
Carpenter Span**
Native Speakers (n = 17, 7 F) 
M (SD17.06 (3.36) 19.00 (7.98) 74.29 (3.08) 2.79 (.53) 
Range 9–22 7–32 67–78 2–4 
Percentile 16 25 N/A N/A 
 
Nonnative Speakers (n = 18, 8 F) 
M (SD15.11 (4.07) 28.17 (4.20) 70.61 (5.22) 3.22 (.52) 
Range 5–20 21–34 57–77 2–4 
Percentile N/A N/A N/A N/A 

*p < .01.

**p < .05.

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