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Table 1. 

Demographic and Global Brain Characteristics

Measures
AP Musicians (n = 13)
RP Musicians (n = 16)
Nonmusicians (n = 12)
ANOVA (p)
AP–RP (p)
Mean
SD
Min.
Max.
Mean
SD
Min.
Max.
Mean
SD
Min.
Max.
Age (years) 24.8 3.1 19.0 31.0 25.4 3.24 20.0 32.0 28.1 4.93 19.0 34.0 .078  
Age of musical training onset (years) 6.1 1.9 3.0 10.0 8.5 3.4 4.0 15.0      .027 
Total amount of musical training (years) 18.5 2.5 14.0 22.0 16.6 3.93 8.0 24.0      .16 
Correct answers, AP test (%) 85.0 13.8 54.6 100.0 7.5 4.53 0.0 18.5      1.4E-11 
Sex (female/male)  7/6   10/6   5/7  .55  
ICV (cm31452.2 223.3 1013.0 1781.9 1520.4 116.6 1307.9 1726.6 1574.0 174.5 1291.4 1906.0 .22  
Total left cortical white matter (cm3230.9 23.9 207.7 272.5 213.0 26.6 172.6 265.9 240.1 37.6 181.7 298.6 .056  
Total right cortical white matter (cm3241.6 25.4 209.8 282.2 222.1 29.3 176.7 271.7 244.3 39.0 177.1 299.1 .13  
Total left cortical volume (cm3252.0 26.2 220.3 304.7 241.2 25.7 192.9 284.1 260.2 21.2 236.3 292.3 .14  
Total right cortical volume (cm3253.7 24.7 220.8 309.1 243.6 25.3 192.6 285.9 260.8 23.0 237.1 295.7 .19  
Total left cortical surface area (cm2816.3 75.3 734.9 983.2 786.8 62.8 642.9 928.9 836.6 80.6 715.0 987.2 .20  
Total right cortical surface area (cm2823.8 72.7 745.1 986.4 786.7 68.6 644.2 925.8 838.3 89.3 705.0 1004.5 .19  
Mean left cortical thickness (mm) 2.756 0.099 2.583 2.925 2.714 0.118 2.475 2.932 2.749 0.104 2.567 2.899 .54  
Mean right cortical thickness (mm) 2.756 0.093 2.581 2.888 2.745 0.091 2.588 2.940 2.766 0.096 2.594 2.903 .85  
Measures
AP Musicians (n = 13)
RP Musicians (n = 16)
Nonmusicians (n = 12)
ANOVA (p)
AP–RP (p)
Mean
SD
Min.
Max.
Mean
SD
Min.
Max.
Mean
SD
Min.
Max.
Age (years) 24.8 3.1 19.0 31.0 25.4 3.24 20.0 32.0 28.1 4.93 19.0 34.0 .078  
Age of musical training onset (years) 6.1 1.9 3.0 10.0 8.5 3.4 4.0 15.0      .027 
Total amount of musical training (years) 18.5 2.5 14.0 22.0 16.6 3.93 8.0 24.0      .16 
Correct answers, AP test (%) 85.0 13.8 54.6 100.0 7.5 4.53 0.0 18.5      1.4E-11 
Sex (female/male)  7/6   10/6   5/7  .55  
ICV (cm31452.2 223.3 1013.0 1781.9 1520.4 116.6 1307.9 1726.6 1574.0 174.5 1291.4 1906.0 .22  
Total left cortical white matter (cm3230.9 23.9 207.7 272.5 213.0 26.6 172.6 265.9 240.1 37.6 181.7 298.6 .056  
Total right cortical white matter (cm3241.6 25.4 209.8 282.2 222.1 29.3 176.7 271.7 244.3 39.0 177.1 299.1 .13  
Total left cortical volume (cm3252.0 26.2 220.3 304.7 241.2 25.7 192.9 284.1 260.2 21.2 236.3 292.3 .14  
Total right cortical volume (cm3253.7 24.7 220.8 309.1 243.6 25.3 192.6 285.9 260.8 23.0 237.1 295.7 .19  
Total left cortical surface area (cm2816.3 75.3 734.9 983.2 786.8 62.8 642.9 928.9 836.6 80.6 715.0 987.2 .20  
Total right cortical surface area (cm2823.8 72.7 745.1 986.4 786.7 68.6 644.2 925.8 838.3 89.3 705.0 1004.5 .19  
Mean left cortical thickness (mm) 2.756 0.099 2.583 2.925 2.714 0.118 2.475 2.932 2.749 0.104 2.567 2.899 .54  
Mean right cortical thickness (mm) 2.756 0.093 2.581 2.888 2.745 0.091 2.588 2.940 2.766 0.096 2.594 2.903 .85  

For the evaluation of the gender frequency, a χ2 test was applied. The comparisons between AP musicians and RP musicians with respect to the musical variables were done with independent samples t tests. All other variables were assessed with ANOVA models. Max. = maximum; Min. = minimum.

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