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Table 1. 

Characteristics of Deaf and Hearing Participants Tested: Mean (SD) [Range] of Age, NVIQ (Shortened Version of Advanced Progressive Matrices [APM]), Reading Level (Gates–McGinitie Reading Test) and Education Level


Age* (Months)
NVIQ (APM) (Max = 12)
Reading Raw Score** (Max = 93)
Education Level (Max = 7)
Deaf (n = 15) 409 (129) [255–677] 7.1 (3.1) [3–12] 79.9 (11.8) [49–93] 5.9 (1.0) [4–7] 
Hearing (n = 15) 306 (97) [224–549] 7.6 (3.0) [3–11] 90.4 (1.5) [87–92] 5.6 (0.74) [5–7] 

Age* (Months)
NVIQ (APM) (Max = 12)
Reading Raw Score** (Max = 93)
Education Level (Max = 7)
Deaf (n = 15) 409 (129) [255–677] 7.1 (3.1) [3–12] 79.9 (11.8) [49–93] 5.9 (1.0) [4–7] 
Hearing (n = 15) 306 (97) [224–549] 7.6 (3.0) [3–11] 90.4 (1.5) [87–92] 5.6 (0.74) [5–7] 

Deaf and hearing participants did not differ on NVIQ or education level (ps > .1). However, hearing participants were younger (*p < .05) and better readers than deaf participants (**p < .005).

NB: see Table 3 for characteristics of participants included in the ERP analyses.

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