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Table 2. 

Sentence Structures and Foils in the Seven Conditions

Condition
Sentence Example
Foil Picture
Short Lexical The boy is hugging the girl. Different action (e.g., pulling) 
Short Active The girl is kissing the boy. Agent and patient reversed 
Short Passivea The boy is kicked by the girl. Agent and patient reversed 
Long Lexical The girl who is green is pushing the boy. Different action (e.g., chasing) 
The boy is kissing the girl who is red. Different colored patient (e.g., green girl) 
Long Easy The girl is pulling the boy who is red. Color assigned to wrong participant 
The boy who is red is chasing the girl. Agent and patient reversed 
Long Mediuma The girl who is washed by the boy is green. Color assigned to wrong participant 
The girl who the boy is hugging is red. Agent and patient reversed 
Long Harda The boy who the girl is pushed by is blue. Agent and patient reversed 
The girl who the boy is kissed by is green. Color assigned to wrong participant 
Condition
Sentence Example
Foil Picture
Short Lexical The boy is hugging the girl. Different action (e.g., pulling) 
Short Active The girl is kissing the boy. Agent and patient reversed 
Short Passivea The boy is kicked by the girl. Agent and patient reversed 
Long Lexical The girl who is green is pushing the boy. Different action (e.g., chasing) 
The boy is kissing the girl who is red. Different colored patient (e.g., green girl) 
Long Easy The girl is pulling the boy who is red. Color assigned to wrong participant 
The boy who is red is chasing the girl. Agent and patient reversed 
Long Mediuma The girl who is washed by the boy is green. Color assigned to wrong participant 
The girl who the boy is hugging is red. Agent and patient reversed 
Long Harda The boy who the girl is pushed by is blue. Agent and patient reversed 
The girl who the boy is kissed by is green. Color assigned to wrong participant 

aNoncanonical structures. See Wilson, Dronkers, et al. (2010) for a more detailed description and linguistic analysis of the stimuli.

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