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Table 1. 

Participant Demographics and Language Background by Group


High-proficiency Group
Low-proficiency Group
Statistical Difference between Groups
Performance on GJT (d′) 2.9 (1.0) 0.43 (0.42) t(62) = 12.9, p < .001 
Performance on comprehension questions 95% 93% t(62) = 1.35, p = .18 
Training condition (implicit/explicit) 13 I/19 E 29 I/3 E χ2(1) = 17.7, p < .001 
Sex 17 M/15 F 15 M/17 F χ2(1) = 0.25, p = .617 
Age (years) 22.1 (3.6) 21.2 (2.8) t(62) = 1.10, p = .28 
Number of L2s studied 1.1 (0.8) 0.9 (0.6) t(62) = 1.09, p = .28 
Years of L2 study 3.9 (3.5) 3.2 (3.7) t(62) = 0.76, p = .45 
Age of first exposure to an L2 (years)a 14.0 (4.1) 12.8 (4.5) t(50) = 1.03, p = .31 
Prior study of richly inflected language (yes/no) 16 Y/16 N 11 Y/21 N χ2(1) = 1.60, p = .21 

High-proficiency Group
Low-proficiency Group
Statistical Difference between Groups
Performance on GJT (d′) 2.9 (1.0) 0.43 (0.42) t(62) = 12.9, p < .001 
Performance on comprehension questions 95% 93% t(62) = 1.35, p = .18 
Training condition (implicit/explicit) 13 I/19 E 29 I/3 E χ2(1) = 17.7, p < .001 
Sex 17 M/15 F 15 M/17 F χ2(1) = 0.25, p = .617 
Age (years) 22.1 (3.6) 21.2 (2.8) t(62) = 1.10, p = .28 
Number of L2s studied 1.1 (0.8) 0.9 (0.6) t(62) = 1.09, p = .28 
Years of L2 study 3.9 (3.5) 3.2 (3.7) t(62) = 0.76, p = .45 
Age of first exposure to an L2 (years)a 14.0 (4.1) 12.8 (4.5) t(50) = 1.03, p = .31 
Prior study of richly inflected language (yes/no) 16 Y/16 N 11 Y/21 N χ2(1) = 1.60, p = .21 

Standard deviations are provided in parentheses. GJT = grammaticality judgment task.

aIncludes only participants who previously learned an L2.

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