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Table 2. 

Pretest Ratings of Valence, Arousal, and Concreteness for Negative and Neutral Sentences, Words, and Pictures on a 9-Point Scale

Sentences: Whole Sentence, Mean (SD)Sentences: Content Words, Mean (SD)Words, Mean (SD)Pictures, Mean (SD)
Valence Negative 2.36 (0.5) 4.40 (0.32) 2.38 (0.5) 2.38 (0.6) 
Neutral 5.22 (0.2) 4.47 (0.36) 5.48 (0.6) 5.16 (0.4) 
Arousal Negative 5.59 (1.1) 4.16 (0.36) 5.62 (1.1) 5.90 (1.8) 
Neutral 3.11 (1.5) 4.18 (0.45) 2.71 (1.4) 1.95 (0.9) 
Concreteness Negative 6.41 (1.1) – 6.37 (1.2) 6.58 (1.1) 
Neutral 6.20 (1.3) – 6.72 (1.3) 6.79 (1.2) 
Sentences: Whole Sentence, Mean (SD)Sentences: Content Words, Mean (SD)Words, Mean (SD)Pictures, Mean (SD)
Valence Negative 2.36 (0.5) 4.40 (0.32) 2.38 (0.5) 2.38 (0.6) 
Neutral 5.22 (0.2) 4.47 (0.36) 5.48 (0.6) 5.16 (0.4) 
Arousal Negative 5.59 (1.1) 4.16 (0.36) 5.62 (1.1) 5.90 (1.8) 
Neutral 3.11 (1.5) 4.18 (0.45) 2.71 (1.4) 1.95 (0.9) 
Concreteness Negative 6.41 (1.1) – 6.37 (1.2) 6.58 (1.1) 
Neutral 6.20 (1.3) – 6.72 (1.3) 6.79 (1.2) 
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