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Table 1. 

Definition of the (Behavioral) Kinematic and Speech-related Dependent Variables in Experiments 1 and 2, as Calculated for Each Experimental Trial

VariableDefinition
Kinematic Dependent Variables 
Gesture initiation time (msec) Gesture onset − Light onset 
Stroke duration (msec) Gesture apex − Gesture onset 
Apex time (msec) Gesture apex − Light onset 
Hold duration (msec) Retraction time − Gesture apex 
Incremental distance (cm) The amount of distance traveled by the pointing index finger between Gesture onset and Gesture apex 
Velocity (cm/sec) Apex time/Incremental distance 
 
Speech-related Dependent Variables 
Speech duration (msec) Speech offset − Speech onset 
Speech onset time (msec) Speech onset − Light onset 
Synchronization time (msec) Speech onset time − Apex time 
Maximum loudness (db) The maximum loudness of speech during an utterance 
Mean Loudness (db) The average loudness of speech across an utterance 
 
Other Variables Used in Calculations 
Light onset The moment in time a circle lit up 
Gesture onset The moment in time the participant's finger left the button in order to point 
Gesture apex The moment in time where the pointing index finger was at least 7 cm from the button and moved forward only less than 2 mm for two consecutive samples 
Speech onset The moment in time the participant started speaking 
Speech offset The moment in time the participant stopped speaking 
Retraction time The moment in time where the pointing index finger moved back in the direction of the button for at least 2 mm in two consecutive samples 
VariableDefinition
Kinematic Dependent Variables 
Gesture initiation time (msec) Gesture onset − Light onset 
Stroke duration (msec) Gesture apex − Gesture onset 
Apex time (msec) Gesture apex − Light onset 
Hold duration (msec) Retraction time − Gesture apex 
Incremental distance (cm) The amount of distance traveled by the pointing index finger between Gesture onset and Gesture apex 
Velocity (cm/sec) Apex time/Incremental distance 
 
Speech-related Dependent Variables 
Speech duration (msec) Speech offset − Speech onset 
Speech onset time (msec) Speech onset − Light onset 
Synchronization time (msec) Speech onset time − Apex time 
Maximum loudness (db) The maximum loudness of speech during an utterance 
Mean Loudness (db) The average loudness of speech across an utterance 
 
Other Variables Used in Calculations 
Light onset The moment in time a circle lit up 
Gesture onset The moment in time the participant's finger left the button in order to point 
Gesture apex The moment in time where the pointing index finger was at least 7 cm from the button and moved forward only less than 2 mm for two consecutive samples 
Speech onset The moment in time the participant started speaking 
Speech offset The moment in time the participant stopped speaking 
Retraction time The moment in time where the pointing index finger moved back in the direction of the button for at least 2 mm in two consecutive samples 
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