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Table 3. 

Training-related Changes in Transfer Tasks

PretrainingPosttrainingPre to PostBayesian t Test BF10
MSDMSDtpCohen's d
Process-specific Memory Tasks 
Digit recall 100.833 15.735 108.567 15.85 −4.500 <.001 0.490 255.700 
Dot matrix 105.2 22.352 120.1 21.865 −6.971 <.001 0.674 131219.000 
Backward digit recall 101.367 19.345 115.2 15.338 −5.897 <.001 0.798 8818.000 
Mr X 105.5 19.011 114.733 16.885 −5.541 <.001 0.514 3573.000 
Verbal storage 7.967 1.351 8.967 1.732 −4.664 <.001 0.649 385.700 
VS storage 7.267 1.311 8.033 1.752 −3.516 <.001 0.500 23.720 
Verbal backward 6.567 1.612 8.133 1.548 −4.683 <.001 0.991 405.000 
VS backward 6.433 1.695 7.367 1.921 −3.006 .005 0.517 7.597 
 
Non Process-specific Memory Tasks 
Verbal n-back 4.933 1.66 5.4 2.313 −1.304 .203 0.235 0.419 
VS n-back 3.567 1.547 4.333 1.936 −2.605 .014 0.440 3.322 
Verbal complex span 6.133 2.3 6.9 2.551 −2.538 .017 0.316 2.917 
VS complex span 4.667 1.863 4.6 2.061 0.220 .827 −0.034 0.199 
 
Processes Associated with WM 
Verbal Flanker effect 82.774 31.099 79.324 66.107 0.335 .740 −0.071 0.205 
VS Flanker effect 75.165 76.888 74.031 66.553 0.064 .949 −0.016 0.195 
Verbal Stroop effect 43.349 130.08 76.764 136.27 −1.004 .324 0.251 0.308 
VS Stroop effect 124.442 68.5 145.107 114.98 −1.043 .306 0.225 0.319 
 
General Cognitive Abilities 
Verbal processing 2071.47 580.7 1916.78 328.81 2.780 .009 −0.340 4.726 
VS processing 1221.26 435.74 1017.35 308.9 5.166 <.001 −0.548 1374.000 
Matrix reasoning 60.667 4.95 62.6 4.223 −2.511 .018 0.421 2.766 
Vocabulary 61.7 8.125 63.533 8.427 −2.483 .019 0.221 2.624 
Number operations 112.4 17.047 115.8 15.624 −3.111 .004 0.208 9.532 
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 110.467 14.277 112.567 18.823 −1.467 .153 0.127 0.510 
 
Cognitive Task with No Memory Load 
Emotion hexagon 89.806 8.704 89.698 8.212 0.088 .930 −0.013 0.195 
PretrainingPosttrainingPre to PostBayesian t Test BF10
MSDMSDtpCohen's d
Process-specific Memory Tasks 
Digit recall 100.833 15.735 108.567 15.85 −4.500 <.001 0.490 255.700 
Dot matrix 105.2 22.352 120.1 21.865 −6.971 <.001 0.674 131219.000 
Backward digit recall 101.367 19.345 115.2 15.338 −5.897 <.001 0.798 8818.000 
Mr X 105.5 19.011 114.733 16.885 −5.541 <.001 0.514 3573.000 
Verbal storage 7.967 1.351 8.967 1.732 −4.664 <.001 0.649 385.700 
VS storage 7.267 1.311 8.033 1.752 −3.516 <.001 0.500 23.720 
Verbal backward 6.567 1.612 8.133 1.548 −4.683 <.001 0.991 405.000 
VS backward 6.433 1.695 7.367 1.921 −3.006 .005 0.517 7.597 
 
Non Process-specific Memory Tasks 
Verbal n-back 4.933 1.66 5.4 2.313 −1.304 .203 0.235 0.419 
VS n-back 3.567 1.547 4.333 1.936 −2.605 .014 0.440 3.322 
Verbal complex span 6.133 2.3 6.9 2.551 −2.538 .017 0.316 2.917 
VS complex span 4.667 1.863 4.6 2.061 0.220 .827 −0.034 0.199 
 
Processes Associated with WM 
Verbal Flanker effect 82.774 31.099 79.324 66.107 0.335 .740 −0.071 0.205 
VS Flanker effect 75.165 76.888 74.031 66.553 0.064 .949 −0.016 0.195 
Verbal Stroop effect 43.349 130.08 76.764 136.27 −1.004 .324 0.251 0.308 
VS Stroop effect 124.442 68.5 145.107 114.98 −1.043 .306 0.225 0.319 
 
General Cognitive Abilities 
Verbal processing 2071.47 580.7 1916.78 328.81 2.780 .009 −0.340 4.726 
VS processing 1221.26 435.74 1017.35 308.9 5.166 <.001 −0.548 1374.000 
Matrix reasoning 60.667 4.95 62.6 4.223 −2.511 .018 0.421 2.766 
Vocabulary 61.7 8.125 63.533 8.427 −2.483 .019 0.221 2.624 
Number operations 112.4 17.047 115.8 15.624 −3.111 .004 0.208 9.532 
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 110.467 14.277 112.567 18.823 −1.467 .153 0.127 0.510 
 
Cognitive Task with No Memory Load 
Emotion hexagon 89.806 8.704 89.698 8.212 0.088 .930 −0.013 0.195 

Bold text indicates significant effect at p < .05 level; bold italics denote significant effects after family-wise correction for multiple comparison.

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