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Table 1.

Framework for Epistemic Practices in STEAM

STEM practicesConjectured STeAM practicesArts practices
Exploring Asking questions/defining problems
Planning and carrying out investigations
Using mathematical and computational thinking 
Noticing and questioning
Exploring materiality
Defining the problem space 
Deep noticing
Deconstructing component elements and their respective meanings 
Meaning-Making Developing and using models
Analyzing and interpreting data
Constructing explanations/designing solutions 
Producing tentative representations
Conducting principled iterations/revisions
Engaging multiple modalities
Finding relevance 
Applying artistic principles to augment meaning
Designing interrelations within and across multiple sign systems
Referencing or combining existing works and ideas 
Critiquing Arguing from evidence/peer review
Evaluating and communicating findings 
Critical historicity; Hacking the ideas of others
Cultivating dissent
Holding commitments to standards of the field
Sharing results/“audiencing” 
Critical historicity; negotiating what constitutes a “good” project
Given a particular artistic goal, evaluating how successfully this goal has been met 
STEM practicesConjectured STeAM practicesArts practices
Exploring Asking questions/defining problems
Planning and carrying out investigations
Using mathematical and computational thinking 
Noticing and questioning
Exploring materiality
Defining the problem space 
Deep noticing
Deconstructing component elements and their respective meanings 
Meaning-Making Developing and using models
Analyzing and interpreting data
Constructing explanations/designing solutions 
Producing tentative representations
Conducting principled iterations/revisions
Engaging multiple modalities
Finding relevance 
Applying artistic principles to augment meaning
Designing interrelations within and across multiple sign systems
Referencing or combining existing works and ideas 
Critiquing Arguing from evidence/peer review
Evaluating and communicating findings 
Critical historicity; Hacking the ideas of others
Cultivating dissent
Holding commitments to standards of the field
Sharing results/“audiencing” 
Critical historicity; negotiating what constitutes a “good” project
Given a particular artistic goal, evaluating how successfully this goal has been met 
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