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Table 9: 

F1 score for two varieties of hard-to-identify entities: zero-frequency entities that do not appear in the training corpus, and longer entities of four or more words.

LanguageCNN-BiLSTMmBERT-baseXLM-R-base
all0-freq0-freq Δlonglong Δall0-freq0-freq Δlonglong Δall0-freq0-freq Δlonglong Δ
amh 52.89 40.98 −11.91 45.16 −7.73 – – – – – 70.96 68.91 −2.05 64.86 −6.10 
hau 83.70 78.52 −5.18 66.21 −17.49 87.34 79.41 −7.93 67.67 −19.67 89.44 85.48 −3.96 76.06 −13.38 
ibo 78.48 70.57 −7.91 53.93 −24.55 85.11 78.41 −6.70 60.46 −24.65 84.51 77.42 −7.09 59.52 −24.99 
kin 64.61 55.89 −8.72 40.00 −24.61 70.98 65.57 −5.41 55.39 −15.59 73.93 66.54 −7.39 54.96 −18.97 
lug 74.31 67.99 −6.32 58.33 −15.98 80.56 76.27 −4.29 65.67 −14.89 80.71 73.54 −7.17 63.77 −16.94 
luo 66.42 58.93 −7.49 54.17 −12.25 72.65 72.85 0.20 66.67 −5.98 75.14 72.34 −2.80 69.39 −5.75 
pcm 66.43 59.73 −6.70 47.80 −18.63 87.78 82.40 −5.38 77.12 −10.66 87.39 83.65 −3.74 74.67 −12.72 
swa 79.26 64.74 −14.52 44.78 −34.48 86.37 78.77 −7.60 45.55 −40.82 87.55 80.91 −6.64 53.93 −33.62 
wol 60.43 49.03 −11.40 26.92 −33.51 66.10 59.54 −6.56 19.05 −47.05 64.38 57.21 −7.17 38.89 −25.49 
yor 67.07 56.33 −10.74 64.52 −2.55 78.64 73.41 −5.23 74.34 −4.30 77.58 72.01 −5.57 76.14 −1.44 
 
avg (excl. amh69.36 60.27 −9.09 50.18 −19.18 79.50 74.07 −5.43 59.10 −20.40 79.15 73.80 −5.36 63.22 −15.94 
LanguageCNN-BiLSTMmBERT-baseXLM-R-base
all0-freq0-freq Δlonglong Δall0-freq0-freq Δlonglong Δall0-freq0-freq Δlonglong Δ
amh 52.89 40.98 −11.91 45.16 −7.73 – – – – – 70.96 68.91 −2.05 64.86 −6.10 
hau 83.70 78.52 −5.18 66.21 −17.49 87.34 79.41 −7.93 67.67 −19.67 89.44 85.48 −3.96 76.06 −13.38 
ibo 78.48 70.57 −7.91 53.93 −24.55 85.11 78.41 −6.70 60.46 −24.65 84.51 77.42 −7.09 59.52 −24.99 
kin 64.61 55.89 −8.72 40.00 −24.61 70.98 65.57 −5.41 55.39 −15.59 73.93 66.54 −7.39 54.96 −18.97 
lug 74.31 67.99 −6.32 58.33 −15.98 80.56 76.27 −4.29 65.67 −14.89 80.71 73.54 −7.17 63.77 −16.94 
luo 66.42 58.93 −7.49 54.17 −12.25 72.65 72.85 0.20 66.67 −5.98 75.14 72.34 −2.80 69.39 −5.75 
pcm 66.43 59.73 −6.70 47.80 −18.63 87.78 82.40 −5.38 77.12 −10.66 87.39 83.65 −3.74 74.67 −12.72 
swa 79.26 64.74 −14.52 44.78 −34.48 86.37 78.77 −7.60 45.55 −40.82 87.55 80.91 −6.64 53.93 −33.62 
wol 60.43 49.03 −11.40 26.92 −33.51 66.10 59.54 −6.56 19.05 −47.05 64.38 57.21 −7.17 38.89 −25.49 
yor 67.07 56.33 −10.74 64.52 −2.55 78.64 73.41 −5.23 74.34 −4.30 77.58 72.01 −5.57 76.14 −1.44 
 
avg (excl. amh69.36 60.27 −9.09 50.18 −19.18 79.50 74.07 −5.43 59.10 −20.40 79.15 73.80 −5.36 63.22 −15.94 
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