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Table 1.

Demographic information.

 TDmonoTDbiASDmonoASDbi
N 50 50 50 50 
Gender (M/F) 38/12 40/10 40/10 38/12 
Age range 9.68 (0.94) 7.2–10.9 9.84 (1.11) 6.7–11.1 9.94 (1.46) 6.7–11.8 9.66 (1.61) 7.0–12.0 
SES range 9.92 (2.53) 3–14 9.76 (2.29) 6–14 9.84 (2.19) 6–12 9.04 (3.10) 3–14 
IQ measures 
VIQ (max. score: 160) range – – 89.30 (16.94) 50–142 90.32 (13.14) 70–109 
PIQ (max. score: 160) range – – 88.58 (16.19) 66–133 90.96 (18.76) 49–127 
IQ (max. score: 160) range – – 88.06 (16.16) 63–135 89.12 (14.14) 64–117 
Raven (max. score: 36) range 26.2 (2.34) 20–30 26.6 (2.34) 16–31 – – 
Executive function measures 
loc-to-glo range 3.66 (12.11) −13–60 7.72 (6.99) −7–20 48.68 (25.87) 14–85 8.70 (12.94) −16–29 
glo-to-loc range 24.70 (32.29) −4–94 19.19 (16.46) 3–114 11.24 (13.68) −8–57 26.12 (20.24) 0–63 
Language ability measures 
Expressive vocabulary (max. score: 50) range 39.78 (6.33) 21–47 34.72 (5.34) 24–45 37.94 (6.28) 15–47 34.12 (6.74) 20–45 
Sentence repetition (max. score: 96) range 65.92 (17.40) 32–92 63.61 (19.71)a 26–90 63.36 (18.89) 29–95 59.40 (20.97) 10–89 
Bilingualism measures 
Home language history (%) range   42.80 (21.22)a 10–74   38.76 (11.86) 20–62 
Current language use (%) range   45.39 (12.82)a 29–67   49.04 (9.19) 30–67 
ASD symptomatology (ADI-R) 
SOC (cutoff score: 10) range     21.02 (4.16) 14–29 17.54 (1.94) 14–23 
VC (cutoff score: 8) range     12.10 (1.63) 9–15 12.16 (1.27) 9–14 
RRB (cutoff score: 3) range     4.08 (0.97) 2–6 3.92 (9.66) 2–6 
ADI-R total range     37.20 (4.76) 29–46 33.46 (2.92) 26–42 
 TDmonoTDbiASDmonoASDbi
N 50 50 50 50 
Gender (M/F) 38/12 40/10 40/10 38/12 
Age range 9.68 (0.94) 7.2–10.9 9.84 (1.11) 6.7–11.1 9.94 (1.46) 6.7–11.8 9.66 (1.61) 7.0–12.0 
SES range 9.92 (2.53) 3–14 9.76 (2.29) 6–14 9.84 (2.19) 6–12 9.04 (3.10) 3–14 
IQ measures 
VIQ (max. score: 160) range – – 89.30 (16.94) 50–142 90.32 (13.14) 70–109 
PIQ (max. score: 160) range – – 88.58 (16.19) 66–133 90.96 (18.76) 49–127 
IQ (max. score: 160) range – – 88.06 (16.16) 63–135 89.12 (14.14) 64–117 
Raven (max. score: 36) range 26.2 (2.34) 20–30 26.6 (2.34) 16–31 – – 
Executive function measures 
loc-to-glo range 3.66 (12.11) −13–60 7.72 (6.99) −7–20 48.68 (25.87) 14–85 8.70 (12.94) −16–29 
glo-to-loc range 24.70 (32.29) −4–94 19.19 (16.46) 3–114 11.24 (13.68) −8–57 26.12 (20.24) 0–63 
Language ability measures 
Expressive vocabulary (max. score: 50) range 39.78 (6.33) 21–47 34.72 (5.34) 24–45 37.94 (6.28) 15–47 34.12 (6.74) 20–45 
Sentence repetition (max. score: 96) range 65.92 (17.40) 32–92 63.61 (19.71)a 26–90 63.36 (18.89) 29–95 59.40 (20.97) 10–89 
Bilingualism measures 
Home language history (%) range   42.80 (21.22)a 10–74   38.76 (11.86) 20–62 
Current language use (%) range   45.39 (12.82)a 29–67   49.04 (9.19) 30–67 
ASD symptomatology (ADI-R) 
SOC (cutoff score: 10) range     21.02 (4.16) 14–29 17.54 (1.94) 14–23 
VC (cutoff score: 8) range     12.10 (1.63) 9–15 12.16 (1.27) 9–14 
RRB (cutoff score: 3) range     4.08 (0.97) 2–6 3.92 (9.66) 2–6 
ADI-R total range     37.20 (4.76) 29–46 33.46 (2.92) 26–42 

Note. aN = 49. The demographic information is presented as Mean (SD), and includes: gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES), IQ measures (VIQ = verbal IQ; PIQ = performance IQ; IQ = general IQ for the autistic children; Raven scores for the TD children), executive function measures (glo-to-loc = costs of switching from a global to a local task; loc-to-glo = costs of switching from a local to a global task), language ability measures, bilingualism measures (i.e., home language history and current language use in L1 [Albanian/Russian/Bulgarian]), and autism symptomatology measures (results from the Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised [ADI-R]; SOC = reciprocal social, VC = verbal communication, RRB = restricted and repetitive behaviors). TDmono = typically developing monolingual children; TDbi = typically developing bilingual children; ASDmono = monolingual autistic children; ASDbi = bilingual autistic children.

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