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The survey measured emotions and engagement, memory characteristics, and recollection accuracy. A Shapiro–Wilk's test (p > .05) (Razali & Wah, 2011; Shapiro & Wilk, 1965), skewness and kurtosis z-values (Doane & Seward, 2011), and a visual inspection of the respective histograms, normal Q-Q plots, and box plots, determined that the values for each of the dependent variables are not normally distributed in either of the viewing conditions. Therefore, we used a Mann–Whitney U test to compare the two conditions. For the results of the survey items, see Table 1.

Table 1.

Mann--Whitney U Test: Mean Rank and Median Values, z-Scores, and Effect Sizes

VRScreen
VariableScale (from 1 to 7)Mean rankMedianMean rankMedianz-scorer2
Viewing experience       
1. I felt that I was involved in the visual world of the movie not at all–completely 79.85 86.35 5.5 −.90 .005 
2. I felt I was inside the story** not at all–completely 92.68 72.71 −2.74 .046 
3. I felt I was at the places in the displayed environment*** not at all–completely 102.93 61.83 −5.62 .191 
4. I empathized with one or more character(s) not at all–completely 87.65 78.06 −1.35 .011 
5. The story affected me emotionally not at all–completely 88.43 77.23 −1.54 .014 
6. I became less aware of the real world and my personal problems while watching the movie not at all–completely 83.51 82.46 −.14 .00012 
7. When I was watching, time seemed to fly quickly*** not at all–completely 95.96 69.23 −3.65 .081 
8. This experience was fascinating*** not at all–completely 97.45 67.65 4.5 −4.08 .101 
9. I felt nauseous while watching the movie* not at all–completely 88.74 76.91 −2.12 .027 
10. I felt dizzy while watching the movie not at all–completely 86.06 79.75 −1.14 .008 
Memory characteristics       
1. When I think of the movie, I can see with my mind's eye what took place* not at all–as clearly as if I watched it now 89.92 75.65 5.5 1.98 .024 
2. My memory for the movie involves sound little or none–a lot 84.39 81.53 .44 .001 
3. The relative spatial arrangement of people and objects in my memory for the movie is*** vague–clear 96.64 68.51 3.93 .094 
4. At parts, the movie made me feel moved. This feeling was weak–strong 88.46 77.20 1.55 .015 
5. At parts, the movie made me feel sad. This feeling was weak–strong 86.69 79.08 1.04 .007 
6. At parts, the movie made me feel happy. This feeling was* weak–strong 90.54 74.99 2.13 .027 
7. The emotions I have when I recall the movie are not at all intense–extremely intense 87.52 78.20 1.27 .010 
8. When I recollect the movie, I have a physical/bodily reaction (e.g., palpitations, sweating, tears, laughter) not at all–very strongly 88.66 76.98 1.65 .017 
9. When I now recall the movie, I primarily see what happened from a perspective as seen from** inside the story world–as an outside observer looking into the story world 72.43 84.23 −3.00 .055 
10. I was able to understand the structure and content of the story not at all–completely 82.81 83.21 −.06 .00002 
Recollection accuracy       
1. Percentage of correct answers** — 72.06 66.7 94.63 75 −3.07 .057 
2. Percentage of “I don't know” answers — 88.61 16.67 77.04 16.67 1.59 .015 
VRScreen
VariableScale (from 1 to 7)Mean rankMedianMean rankMedianz-scorer2
Viewing experience       
1. I felt that I was involved in the visual world of the movie not at all–completely 79.85 86.35 5.5 −.90 .005 
2. I felt I was inside the story** not at all–completely 92.68 72.71 −2.74 .046 
3. I felt I was at the places in the displayed environment*** not at all–completely 102.93 61.83 −5.62 .191 
4. I empathized with one or more character(s) not at all–completely 87.65 78.06 −1.35 .011 
5. The story affected me emotionally not at all–completely 88.43 77.23 −1.54 .014 
6. I became less aware of the real world and my personal problems while watching the movie not at all–completely 83.51 82.46 −.14 .00012 
7. When I was watching, time seemed to fly quickly*** not at all–completely 95.96 69.23 −3.65 .081 
8. This experience was fascinating*** not at all–completely 97.45 67.65 4.5 −4.08 .101 
9. I felt nauseous while watching the movie* not at all–completely 88.74 76.91 −2.12 .027 
10. I felt dizzy while watching the movie not at all–completely 86.06 79.75 −1.14 .008 
Memory characteristics       
1. When I think of the movie, I can see with my mind's eye what took place* not at all–as clearly as if I watched it now 89.92 75.65 5.5 1.98 .024 
2. My memory for the movie involves sound little or none–a lot 84.39 81.53 .44 .001 
3. The relative spatial arrangement of people and objects in my memory for the movie is*** vague–clear 96.64 68.51 3.93 .094 
4. At parts, the movie made me feel moved. This feeling was weak–strong 88.46 77.20 1.55 .015 
5. At parts, the movie made me feel sad. This feeling was weak–strong 86.69 79.08 1.04 .007 
6. At parts, the movie made me feel happy. This feeling was* weak–strong 90.54 74.99 2.13 .027 
7. The emotions I have when I recall the movie are not at all intense–extremely intense 87.52 78.20 1.27 .010 
8. When I recollect the movie, I have a physical/bodily reaction (e.g., palpitations, sweating, tears, laughter) not at all–very strongly 88.66 76.98 1.65 .017 
9. When I now recall the movie, I primarily see what happened from a perspective as seen from** inside the story world–as an outside observer looking into the story world 72.43 84.23 −3.00 .055 
10. I was able to understand the structure and content of the story not at all–completely 82.81 83.21 −.06 .00002 
Recollection accuracy       
1. Percentage of correct answers** — 72.06 66.7 94.63 75 −3.07 .057 
2. Percentage of “I don't know” answers — 88.61 16.67 77.04 16.67 1.59 .015 

Note. Analyses were performed using a sample size of n = 85 for the virtual reality condition and n = 80 for the screen condition. Significant at *p < .05, **p < .01, and ***p < .001.

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