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Table 6.

Features used for citation function classification

PapersFeatures used
ContextualNoncontextual
SyntacticSemanticPositional-BasedFrequency-BasedOther
Textual-BasedSimilarity-BasedPolarity-Based
Teufel et al. (2006b)  • Verb Tense • Cue phrases     • Location within (1) Article, (2) Paragraph, (3) Section   • Self-citation 
• Voice 
• Modality 
Dong and Schäfer (2011)  • POS Tags • Cue Words specific to classes     • Location within section • Popularity   
• Density 
• Avg Density 
Athar (2011)  • POS Tags • n-grams (n = 1–3)   • Scientific polarity lexicon   • Number of (1) Adjectives, (2) Adverbs, (3) Pronouns, (4) Modals, (5) Cardinals, (6) Negation phrases, (7) Valance shifters • Name of the primary author 
• Dependency Relations • Subjectivity cues • Sentence splitting 
• Negation 
Jochim and Schütze (2012)  • Dependency Relations • Cue Words   • Scientific polarity lexicon • Section • Popularity • Self-citation 
• POS Tag patterns • n-grams (n = 1–3) • General polarity lexicon • Location within (1) Paper (2) Paragraph (3) Section (4) Sentence • Density • Has resource 
• Citation is a constituent • General positive lexicon • Avg Density • Has tool 
• Author linked to comparative • General negative lexicon 
• Citation linked to comparative 
• Citation is in contrastive clause 
• Author linked to positive sentiment 
• Same as Teufel et al. (2006b)  
• Sentence has modal verb 
• Dependency root node 
• Main verb 
• First person POS 
• Third person POS 
• Comparative/superlative POS 
• Has “but” 
• Has “cf.” 
Xu et al. (2013)  • Whether citations used in parenthesis • Cue patterns     • Location within paper • Number of citation anchors within sentence. • Author relationships 
• n-grams (n = 1–3) • Paper relationships 
• Centrality measures 
• Self-citations 
Li et al. (2013)  • 3rd person pronoun • n-grams         • Presence of formula, graph and table in citation context 
• POS Tags • Cue word/phrases 
• Dependency Relations 
Abu-Jbara et al. (2013), Jha et al. (2017)  • Closest Verb/Adjective/Adverb • Negation, Speculation, Closest Subjectivity Cue     • Section • Reference Count • Is Separate 
• Contains 1st/3rd person pronoun • Contrary Expressions • Self Citation 
• Dependency Relations 
Bakhti et al. (2018)    • n-grams (n = 2–3)           
• Cue phrases 
Jurgens et al. (2018)  • Verb Tense • Extended Cue phrases (Teufel et al., 2006b) • Topical similarity with cited paper   • Location within (1) Paper (2) Section (3) Subsection (4) Sentence (5) Clause • Direct Citations • Self-citation 
• Lengths of sentence and clause • Citation context topics • Canonicalized section title • Indirect Citations • Year difference in publication dates 
• Used with Parenthesis • Direct & Indirect citations/section type • Citing paper’s venue 
• Bootstrapped and Custom function patterns • Fraction of bibliography used by reference • Reference’s venue 
• Citation prototypicality • Citation in (1) Subsection, (2) Sentence, (3) Clause • Reference’s citation count & PageRank 
• Whether used in nominative/parenthetical form • Common Citations count • Reference’s Hub & Authority scores & Network Centrality 
• Whether preceded by (1) Pascal-cased word, (2) All-capital case word 
PapersFeatures used
ContextualNoncontextual
SyntacticSemanticPositional-BasedFrequency-BasedOther
Textual-BasedSimilarity-BasedPolarity-Based
Teufel et al. (2006b)  • Verb Tense • Cue phrases     • Location within (1) Article, (2) Paragraph, (3) Section   • Self-citation 
• Voice 
• Modality 
Dong and Schäfer (2011)  • POS Tags • Cue Words specific to classes     • Location within section • Popularity   
• Density 
• Avg Density 
Athar (2011)  • POS Tags • n-grams (n = 1–3)   • Scientific polarity lexicon   • Number of (1) Adjectives, (2) Adverbs, (3) Pronouns, (4) Modals, (5) Cardinals, (6) Negation phrases, (7) Valance shifters • Name of the primary author 
• Dependency Relations • Subjectivity cues • Sentence splitting 
• Negation 
Jochim and Schütze (2012)  • Dependency Relations • Cue Words   • Scientific polarity lexicon • Section • Popularity • Self-citation 
• POS Tag patterns • n-grams (n = 1–3) • General polarity lexicon • Location within (1) Paper (2) Paragraph (3) Section (4) Sentence • Density • Has resource 
• Citation is a constituent • General positive lexicon • Avg Density • Has tool 
• Author linked to comparative • General negative lexicon 
• Citation linked to comparative 
• Citation is in contrastive clause 
• Author linked to positive sentiment 
• Same as Teufel et al. (2006b)  
• Sentence has modal verb 
• Dependency root node 
• Main verb 
• First person POS 
• Third person POS 
• Comparative/superlative POS 
• Has “but” 
• Has “cf.” 
Xu et al. (2013)  • Whether citations used in parenthesis • Cue patterns     • Location within paper • Number of citation anchors within sentence. • Author relationships 
• n-grams (n = 1–3) • Paper relationships 
• Centrality measures 
• Self-citations 
Li et al. (2013)  • 3rd person pronoun • n-grams         • Presence of formula, graph and table in citation context 
• POS Tags • Cue word/phrases 
• Dependency Relations 
Abu-Jbara et al. (2013), Jha et al. (2017)  • Closest Verb/Adjective/Adverb • Negation, Speculation, Closest Subjectivity Cue     • Section • Reference Count • Is Separate 
• Contains 1st/3rd person pronoun • Contrary Expressions • Self Citation 
• Dependency Relations 
Bakhti et al. (2018)    • n-grams (n = 2–3)           
• Cue phrases 
Jurgens et al. (2018)  • Verb Tense • Extended Cue phrases (Teufel et al., 2006b) • Topical similarity with cited paper   • Location within (1) Paper (2) Section (3) Subsection (4) Sentence (5) Clause • Direct Citations • Self-citation 
• Lengths of sentence and clause • Citation context topics • Canonicalized section title • Indirect Citations • Year difference in publication dates 
• Used with Parenthesis • Direct & Indirect citations/section type • Citing paper’s venue 
• Bootstrapped and Custom function patterns • Fraction of bibliography used by reference • Reference’s venue 
• Citation prototypicality • Citation in (1) Subsection, (2) Sentence, (3) Clause • Reference’s citation count & PageRank 
• Whether used in nominative/parenthetical form • Common Citations count • Reference’s Hub & Authority scores & Network Centrality 
• Whether preceded by (1) Pascal-cased word, (2) All-capital case word 
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