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Table 1.

Descriptive statistics for the entire sample

 MinimumMaximumMeanStandard deviationMedian
  Milestone papers (N = 21) 
Multiple countries involved 0.000 1.000 0.381 0.498 0.000 
Number of coauthors 1.000 6.000 2.905 1.480 3.000 
Years since publication (2005) 1.000 12.000 7.048* 3.263 7.000 
Logarithmized number of cited references 2.565 4.331 3.516** 0.486 3.497 
DI1 (DV) −10.306 27.217 0.953 9.888 −2.826 
DI5 (DV) −0.663 32.702 7.333*** 11.291 1.893 
DI1n (DV) −0.072 0.085 −0.023*** 0.037 −0.030 
DI5n (DV) −0.028 0.125 0.015*** 0.038 −0.001 
DEP (inverse) (DV) 28.176 30.742 29.779** 0.815 29.962 
  Regular papers (N = 21,143) 
Multiple countries involved 0.000 1.000 0.468 0.499 0.000 
Number of coauthors 1.000 27.000 2.815 1.644 2.000 
Years since publication (2005) 1.000 12.000 5.593 3.215 5.000 
Logarithmized number of cited references 0.000 5.094 3.217 0.506 3.219 
DI1 (DV) −64.516 91.566 −0.636 2.676 −0.313 
DI5 (DV) −15.385 93.902 0.453 2.884 0.000 
DI1n (DV) −0.115 0.102 −0.001 0.003 −0.001 
DI5n (DV) −0.024 0.215 −0.000 0.002 −0.000 
DEP (inverse) (DV) 1.000 31.000 28.325 2.127 28.765 
 MinimumMaximumMeanStandard deviationMedian
  Milestone papers (N = 21) 
Multiple countries involved 0.000 1.000 0.381 0.498 0.000 
Number of coauthors 1.000 6.000 2.905 1.480 3.000 
Years since publication (2005) 1.000 12.000 7.048* 3.263 7.000 
Logarithmized number of cited references 2.565 4.331 3.516** 0.486 3.497 
DI1 (DV) −10.306 27.217 0.953 9.888 −2.826 
DI5 (DV) −0.663 32.702 7.333*** 11.291 1.893 
DI1n (DV) −0.072 0.085 −0.023*** 0.037 −0.030 
DI5n (DV) −0.028 0.125 0.015*** 0.038 −0.001 
DEP (inverse) (DV) 28.176 30.742 29.779** 0.815 29.962 
  Regular papers (N = 21,143) 
Multiple countries involved 0.000 1.000 0.468 0.499 0.000 
Number of coauthors 1.000 27.000 2.815 1.644 2.000 
Years since publication (2005) 1.000 12.000 5.593 3.215 5.000 
Logarithmized number of cited references 0.000 5.094 3.217 0.506 3.219 
DI1 (DV) −64.516 91.566 −0.636 2.676 −0.313 
DI5 (DV) −15.385 93.902 0.453 2.884 0.000 
DI1n (DV) −0.115 0.102 −0.001 0.003 −0.001 
DI5n (DV) −0.024 0.215 −0.000 0.002 −0.000 
DEP (inverse) (DV) 1.000 31.000 28.325 2.127 28.765 

Notes. Asterisks in column “Mean” indicate whether group differences between regular and milestone papers are statistically significant (based on t-tests).

*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001

Variables that are used as dependent variables in this study are marked DV.

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