Our data come from rich administrative records on the universe of Norwegian residents. We restrict our sample to individuals who graduated from high school between 2006 and 2014 (born between 1988 and 1996). We start with 2006, because the current high school structure was introduced in that year. We stop with 2014, because that is the final year for which we have education data. The GP system was introduced in 2001, so we have information on all exogenous swaps starting in 2002, when the youngest individuals in our sample (born in 1996) were 6 years old. Because high school applications are submitted when individuals are 15 years old, swaps after age 15 should not affect the outcomes we examine. As such, our main analysis exploits variation in GP-patient gender match among individuals born between 1988 and 1996 who experienced an exogenous GP swap in 2002 or later and are between ages 6 and 15. Panel A of table 1 shows demographic information for these individuals. Only those who attended high school are included in the data. Since the probability of attending high school differs between men and women (24,500 males completed high school in 2016 compared to 31,600 females), our female sample is larger than our male sample.12

Table 1.

Descriptive Statistics of Individuals in Sample

GirlsBoys
MeanSDMeanSD
A: Family Composition  
Birth order 1.864 0.983 1.850 0.985 
Siblings 1.697 1.064 1.707 1.052 
Born in Norway 0.861 0.346 0.851 0.356 
Mother age 28.987 5.008 29.414 4.822 
Mother marital status 0.567 0.496 0.595 0.491 
Mother years of education 14.146 2.396 14.445 2.356 
Mother log earnings 12.740 0.560 12.782 0.587 
Mother not in labor force 0.067 0.250 0.070 0.255 
B: GP Visiting Behavior  
GP visits age 15 1.165 1.630 0.898 1.525 
GP visits age 15 conditional on visiting 2.130 1.680 1.915 1.730 
Still with ex. GP at age 15 0.613 0.487 0.616 0.486 
GP gender match 0.405 0.491 0.627 0.483 
C: Educational Performance and Choice  
Compulsory school GPA 4.591 0.573 4.430 0.595 
Compulsory school STEMM GPA 4.303 0.889 4.351 0.914 
High school GPA 4.314 0.654 4.185 0.681 
High school STEMM GPA 3.993 0.890 3.940 0.905 
Academic track year 1 0.734 0.440 0.807 0.395 
High school STEMM credential 0.195 0.396 0.303 0.460 
Ever College 0.751 0.433 0.678 0.467 
Ever College STEMM 0.077 0.266 0.185 0.388 
GirlsBoys
MeanSDMeanSD
A: Family Composition  
Birth order 1.864 0.983 1.850 0.985 
Siblings 1.697 1.064 1.707 1.052 
Born in Norway 0.861 0.346 0.851 0.356 
Mother age 28.987 5.008 29.414 4.822 
Mother marital status 0.567 0.496 0.595 0.491 
Mother years of education 14.146 2.396 14.445 2.356 
Mother log earnings 12.740 0.560 12.782 0.587 
Mother not in labor force 0.067 0.250 0.070 0.255 
B: GP Visiting Behavior  
GP visits age 15 1.165 1.630 0.898 1.525 
GP visits age 15 conditional on visiting 2.130 1.680 1.915 1.730 
Still with ex. GP at age 15 0.613 0.487 0.616 0.486 
GP gender match 0.405 0.491 0.627 0.483 
C: Educational Performance and Choice  
Compulsory school GPA 4.591 0.573 4.430 0.595 
Compulsory school STEMM GPA 4.303 0.889 4.351 0.914 
High school GPA 4.314 0.654 4.185 0.681 
High school STEMM GPA 3.993 0.890 3.940 0.905 
Academic track year 1 0.734 0.440 0.807 0.395 
High school STEMM credential 0.195 0.396 0.303 0.460 
Ever College 0.751 0.433 0.678 0.467 
Ever College STEMM 0.077 0.266 0.185 0.388 

Sample includes all boys and girls born between 1988 and 1996 who were subject to at least one exogenous GP swap prior to age 15. Number of observations is approximately 8,500 girls and 5,500 boys. Mother's age and marital status are calculated at the year of birth. Mother's earnings, education, and employment are measured when the child is 15 years old (when the children in our sample make their high school choices; our data do not extend far back enough for us to get this information at the year of birth).

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