Panel A of table 2 presents the effect of same-gender GP on female educational choice and performance using the four outcomes defined above: academic high school track, STEMM high school credential, compulsory school STEMM GPA, and high school STEMM GPA.^{19} Column 1 shows that girls who are exposed to a female GP during childhood are 5 percentage points more likely to choose an academic program in high school (7% relative to the mean). This choice ensures access to higher education and greatly improves an individual's chance of obtaining a university degree.^{20} Column 2 explores if GP gender affects the probability of graduating from high school with a STEMM credential (recall that STEMM specialization can be chosen first in the second year of high school). The point estimate closely mirrors that in column 1 and shows that females who are assigned to female GPs in childhood are 4 percentage points more likely to obtain a STEMM credential in high school (20% relative to the mean). Columns 1 and 2 show that female GPs lead girls to sort into, and graduate from, educational programs that traditionally have been underrepresented by women and are associated with larger financial returns.

Table 2.

. | High school academic track . | High school STEMM credential . | Compulsory school STEMM GPA . | High school STEMM GPA . |
---|---|---|---|---|

A: Girls | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.052^{***} | 0.039^{**} | 0.084^{**} | 0.109^{***} |

(0.017) | (0.018) | (0.039) | (0.039) | |

Mean | 0.736 | 0.194 | 4.297 | 3.993 |

Observations | 8,679 | 8,424 | 8,617 | 8,258 |

B: Boys | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.011 | 0.002 | −0.038 | 0.010 |

(0.020) | (0.025) | (0.047) | (0.049) | |

Mean | 0.807 | 0.600 | 4.350 | 3.940 |

Observations | 5,514 | 5,338 | 5,475 | 5,253 |

. | High school academic track . | High school STEMM credential . | Compulsory school STEMM GPA . | High school STEMM GPA . |
---|---|---|---|---|

A: Girls | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.052^{***} | 0.039^{**} | 0.084^{**} | 0.109^{***} |

(0.017) | (0.018) | (0.039) | (0.039) | |

Mean | 0.736 | 0.194 | 4.297 | 3.993 |

Observations | 8,679 | 8,424 | 8,617 | 8,258 |

B: Boys | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.011 | 0.002 | −0.038 | 0.010 |

(0.020) | (0.025) | (0.047) | (0.049) | |

Mean | 0.807 | 0.600 | 4.350 | 3.940 |

Observations | 5,514 | 5,338 | 5,475 | 5,253 |

The table shows the $\beta 1$ coefficients obtained through estimation of equation (1) as described in the text and reproduced here for clarity: $yi=\alpha +\beta 1GP_Matchi+\tau t+\pi m+\theta c+\rho d+\epsilon i$. $yi$ is a general term denoting the outcome listed at the top of each column, and each estimation includes municipality ($\pi m$), year of swap ($\tau t$), birth year ($\theta c$), and previous GP ($\rho d$) fixed effects. The point estimates depicted in the table should be interpreted as the effect of random assignment to same-gender GP in childhood on the outcome listed at the top of the column. Standard errors are clustered at the level of the exogenously assigned GP. Sample includes all girls (boys) born between 1988 and 1996 who were subject to at least one exogenous GP swap prior to age 15. Significant at $*$10%, $**$5%, $***$1%.

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