To examine this possibility, we estimate equation (1) for our core outcomes stratified by whether the female's mother has a college degree. These results, in table 3, show that the role model effects identified in section IVA are driven by daughters of less educated mothers. The results highlight that same-gender role models are important not only for closing the gender STEMM gap but also for closing the within-gender socioeconomic STEMM gap. This suggests same-gender role models may be an important tool for improving intergenerational occupational mobility.^{24} To ensure that this heterogeneity is not driven by female GPs being better at communicating with low-educated families than male GPs, we also estimate equation (1) for boys of low-educated mothers. The results are provided in table A11. None of the coefficients are statistically significant, consistent with our main findings.

Table 3.

. | High school academic track . | High school STEMM credential . | Compulsory school STEMM GPA . | High school STEMM GPA . |
---|---|---|---|---|

A: Mother college or more | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.029 | 0.035 | 0.021 | −0.014 |

(0.033) | (0.050) | (0.091) | (0.098) | |

Mean | 0.851 | 0.291 | 4.632 | 4.243 |

Observations | 2,341 | 2,341 | 2,339 | 2,337 |

B: Mother less than college | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.070^{***} | 0.093^{***} | 0.101^{*} | 0.137^{**} |

(0.026) | (0.024) | (0.054) | (0.053) | |

Mean | 0.675 | 0.152 | 4.212 | 3.874 |

Observations | 4,654 | 4,643 | 4,637 | 4,652 |

. | High school academic track . | High school STEMM credential . | Compulsory school STEMM GPA . | High school STEMM GPA . |
---|---|---|---|---|

A: Mother college or more | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.029 | 0.035 | 0.021 | −0.014 |

(0.033) | (0.050) | (0.091) | (0.098) | |

Mean | 0.851 | 0.291 | 4.632 | 4.243 |

Observations | 2,341 | 2,341 | 2,339 | 2,337 |

B: Mother less than college | ||||

Same-gender GP | 0.070^{***} | 0.093^{***} | 0.101^{*} | 0.137^{**} |

(0.026) | (0.024) | (0.054) | (0.053) | |

Mean | 0.675 | 0.152 | 4.212 | 3.874 |

Observations | 4,654 | 4,643 | 4,637 | 4,652 |

The table shows the $\beta 1$ coefficients obtained through estimation of equation (1) as described in the text and reproduced here for clarity: $yi=\alpha +\beta 1GP_Matchi+\tau t+\pi m+\theta c+\rho d+\epsilon i$. $yi$ is a general term denoting the outcome listed at the top of each column, and each estimation includes municipality ($\pi m$), year of swap ($\tau t$), birth year ($\theta c$), and previous GP ($\rho d$) fixed effects. The point estimates depicted in the table should be interpreted as the effect of random assignment to same-gender GP in childhood on the outcome listed at the top of the column. Standard errors are clustered at the level of the exogenously assigned GP. Panel A includes all girls who were subject to at least one exogenous GP swap prior to age 15 and have a mother with at least a college education. Panel B includes includes all girls who were subject to at least one exogenous GP swap before age 15 and have a mother with less than a college education. Significant at $*$10%, $**$5%, $***$1%.

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