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Table C1

LAS results of UDapter and UDify models (Kondratyuk and Straka 2019) for all low-resource languages. ‘*’ shows languages not present in mBERT training data. Additionally, (†) indicates languages where no significant difference between UDapter and multi-udify by significance testing. For udapter-proxy, chosen proxy language is given between brackets. ctr means centroid language embedding.

orig. udifymulti-udifyudapterudapter-proxy
aii* 9.1 8.4 14.3 8.2 (ar) 
akk* 4.4 4.5 8.2 9.1 (ar) 
am* 2.6 2.8 5.9 1.1 (ar) 
be 81.8 80.1 79.3 69.9 (ru) 
bho*(†) 35.9 37.2 37.3 35.9 (hi) 
bm* 7.9 8.9 8.1 3.1 (ctr) 
br* 39.0 60.5 58.5 14.3 (ctr) 
bxr* 26.7 26.1 28.9 9.1 (ctr) 
cy 42.7 53.6 54.4 9.8 (ctr) 
fo* 59.0 68.6 69.2 64.1 (sv) 
gsw* 39.7 43.6 45.5 23.7 (en) 
gun*(†) 6.0 8.5 8.4 2.1 (ctr) 
hsb* 62.7 53.2 54.2 44.4 (ru) 
kk 63.6 61.9 60.7 45.1 (tr) 
kmr*(†) 20.2 11.2 12.1 4.7 (ctr) 
koi* 22.6 20.8 23.1 6.5 (ctr) 
kpv*(†) 12.9 12.4 12.5 4.7 (ctr) 
krl* 41.7 49.2 48.4 45.6 (fi) 
mdf* 19.4 24.7 26.6 8.7 (ctr) 
mr 67.0 46.4 44.4 29.6 (hi) 
myv*(†) 16.6 19.1 19.2 6.3 (ctr) 
olo* 33.9 42.1 43.3 41.1 (fi) 
pcm*(†) 31.5 36.1 36.7 5.6 (ctr) 
sa* 19.4 19.4 22.2 15.1 (hi) 
ta (†) 71.4 46.0 46.1 12.3 (ctr) 
te (†) 83.4 71.2 71.1 23.1 (ctr) 
tl 41.4 62.7 69.5 14.1 (ctr) 
wbp* 6.7 9.6 12.1 4.8 (ctr) 
yo 22.0 41.2 42.7 10.5 (ctr) 
yue* 31.0 30.5 32.8 24.5 (zh) 
 
lr-avg 34.1 35.3 36.5 20.4 
orig. udifymulti-udifyudapterudapter-proxy
aii* 9.1 8.4 14.3 8.2 (ar) 
akk* 4.4 4.5 8.2 9.1 (ar) 
am* 2.6 2.8 5.9 1.1 (ar) 
be 81.8 80.1 79.3 69.9 (ru) 
bho*(†) 35.9 37.2 37.3 35.9 (hi) 
bm* 7.9 8.9 8.1 3.1 (ctr) 
br* 39.0 60.5 58.5 14.3 (ctr) 
bxr* 26.7 26.1 28.9 9.1 (ctr) 
cy 42.7 53.6 54.4 9.8 (ctr) 
fo* 59.0 68.6 69.2 64.1 (sv) 
gsw* 39.7 43.6 45.5 23.7 (en) 
gun*(†) 6.0 8.5 8.4 2.1 (ctr) 
hsb* 62.7 53.2 54.2 44.4 (ru) 
kk 63.6 61.9 60.7 45.1 (tr) 
kmr*(†) 20.2 11.2 12.1 4.7 (ctr) 
koi* 22.6 20.8 23.1 6.5 (ctr) 
kpv*(†) 12.9 12.4 12.5 4.7 (ctr) 
krl* 41.7 49.2 48.4 45.6 (fi) 
mdf* 19.4 24.7 26.6 8.7 (ctr) 
mr 67.0 46.4 44.4 29.6 (hi) 
myv*(†) 16.6 19.1 19.2 6.3 (ctr) 
olo* 33.9 42.1 43.3 41.1 (fi) 
pcm*(†) 31.5 36.1 36.7 5.6 (ctr) 
sa* 19.4 19.4 22.2 15.1 (hi) 
ta (†) 71.4 46.0 46.1 12.3 (ctr) 
te (†) 83.4 71.2 71.1 23.1 (ctr) 
tl 41.4 62.7 69.5 14.1 (ctr) 
wbp* 6.7 9.6 12.1 4.8 (ctr) 
yo 22.0 41.2 42.7 10.5 (ctr) 
yue* 31.0 30.5 32.8 24.5 (zh) 
 
lr-avg 34.1 35.3 36.5 20.4 
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