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Table 6. 

Themes identified in narrative comments (labels given in brackets) and their observed frequencies.

Real crowdsFrequency %
Heterogenous/diverse paths/speeds (R1) 9.21 
Chaotic/unpredictable/erratic movement - rapid changes (R2) 21.05 
Decisiveness/purposefulness - direct movement (R3) 6.56 
Stop-start movement (R4) 7.89 
Static individuals/groups (R5) 2.63 
Groups/flocking/close proximity/collisions (R6) 7.89 
Collision avoidance (R7) 5.26 
Simulated crowds Frequency % 
Homogeneous behaviour (S1) 5.26 
Rapid direction/speed changes (S2) 3.95 
Goal-driven (S3) 3.95 
Smooth/continuous movement (S4) 15.79 
Clusters (S5) 1.32 
Long interactions/collisions and close proximity (S6) 6.58 
Collision avoidance (S7) 2.63 
Real crowdsFrequency %
Heterogenous/diverse paths/speeds (R1) 9.21 
Chaotic/unpredictable/erratic movement - rapid changes (R2) 21.05 
Decisiveness/purposefulness - direct movement (R3) 6.56 
Stop-start movement (R4) 7.89 
Static individuals/groups (R5) 2.63 
Groups/flocking/close proximity/collisions (R6) 7.89 
Collision avoidance (R7) 5.26 
Simulated crowds Frequency % 
Homogeneous behaviour (S1) 5.26 
Rapid direction/speed changes (S2) 3.95 
Goal-driven (S3) 3.95 
Smooth/continuous movement (S4) 15.79 
Clusters (S5) 1.32 
Long interactions/collisions and close proximity (S6) 6.58 
Collision avoidance (S7) 2.63 

Note. Related themes across real and simulated are numbered similarly, although there may not always be an exact correlation.

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