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Table 2 presents results from covariate balance tests designed to compare StudentU lottery winners and losers in the matched sample (N = 324). Columns 1 and 2 report summary statistics to describe lottery winners and lottery losers, respectively, while column 3 presents the difference in means between the lottery winners and lottery losers, conditional on cohort fixed-effects and cohort fixed-effects interacted with gender. Column 4 reports the p-value for the test of statistical significance for the difference in means.

Table 2.

Covariate Balance Tests

(1)(2)(3)(4)
Lottery WinnersLottery LosersDiff.: Winners vs. Losersp-value
Black 0.420 0.504 −0.085 0.166 
 (0.496) (0.501) (0.061)  
Hispanic 0.520 0.393 0.141 0.022 
 (0.502) (0.489) (0.061)  
White 0.030 0.022 0.005 0.823 
 (0.171) (0.148) (0.021)  
Special education 0.110 0.156 −0.060 0.151 
 (0.314) (0.364) (0.042)  
Gifted 0.240 0.192 0.045 0.383 
 (0.429) (0.395) (0.051)  
EL 0.180 0.161 0.023 0.618 
 (0.386) (0.368) (0.047)  
Age 10.479 10.522 −0.036 0.495 
 (0.362) (0.529) (0.053)  
Economically disadvantaged 0.910 0.799 0.118 0.005 
 (0.288) (0.402) (0.042)  
Charter 0.130 0.125 −0.007 0.867 
 (0.338) (0.331) (0.041)  
Math achievementa −0.100 −0.234 0.130 0.220 
 (0.820) (0.881) (0.106)  
Reading achievementb −0.259 −0.375 0.087 0.445 
 (0.864) (0.931) (0.114)  
p-value (joint F-test)c    0.178 
Observations 100 224 324  
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Lottery WinnersLottery LosersDiff.: Winners vs. Losersp-value
Black 0.420 0.504 −0.085 0.166 
 (0.496) (0.501) (0.061)  
Hispanic 0.520 0.393 0.141 0.022 
 (0.502) (0.489) (0.061)  
White 0.030 0.022 0.005 0.823 
 (0.171) (0.148) (0.021)  
Special education 0.110 0.156 −0.060 0.151 
 (0.314) (0.364) (0.042)  
Gifted 0.240 0.192 0.045 0.383 
 (0.429) (0.395) (0.051)  
EL 0.180 0.161 0.023 0.618 
 (0.386) (0.368) (0.047)  
Age 10.479 10.522 −0.036 0.495 
 (0.362) (0.529) (0.053)  
Economically disadvantaged 0.910 0.799 0.118 0.005 
 (0.288) (0.402) (0.042)  
Charter 0.130 0.125 −0.007 0.867 
 (0.338) (0.331) (0.041)  
Math achievementa −0.100 −0.234 0.130 0.220 
 (0.820) (0.881) (0.106)  
Reading achievementb −0.259 −0.375 0.087 0.445 
 (0.864) (0.931) (0.114)  
p-value (joint F-test)c    0.178 
Observations 100 224 324  

Notes: Column 1 reports raw means and standard deviations for StudentU lottery winners who applied for and received a lottery offer in the spring semesters of 2012—14. Column 2 reports raw means and standard deviations for StudentU lottery losers who applied for but did not receive a lottery offer in the spring semesters of 2012—2014. Column 3 reports the difference in means and associated standard errors in parentheses for StudentU lottery winners versus lottery losers, conditional on cohort fixed-effects and cohort fixed-effects interacted with gender. Column 4 reports the p-value associated with a two-tailed t-test of the difference in means reported in Column 3. The sample includes first-time, non-sibling applicants to StudentU in the 2011—12 to 2013—14 school years. EL = English learner.

aN = 311 for math achievement.

bN = 310 for reading achievement.

cN = 310 for the regression in which covariates are predictors of treatment status.

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