Panel A of table 3 presents ITT estimates representing the effect of a lottery offer on the number of credits earned by the end of ninth grade. The point estimate in column 3 indicates that lottery winners accumulated around 0.45 more course credits than lottery losers by the end of ninth grade. This translates into a 6 percent increase relative to the control group mean of 7.04 credits. This point estimate is nearly identical to the point estimates presented in columns 1 and 2, which come from specifications that exclude baseline student covariates and test scores, respectively. Panel B presents TOT results for the same credit accumulation outcome. The TOT estimate represents the effect of enrolling in StudentU on credits earned in ninth grade among the compliers. Due to high take-up rates, the TOT results are very similar to the ITT estimates.

Table 3.

The Effects of StudentU on Credits Earned in Early High School

All StudentsBaseline Achievement
LowHighp-value
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A. ITT
Won lottery 0.463*** 0.480*** 0.452*** 0.822*** 0.082 0.003
(0.159) (0.160) (0.161) (0.209) (0.191)
Panel B. TOT
Enrolled in SU 0.541*** 0.558*** 0.524*** 0.940*** 0.096 0.003
(0.183) (0.182) (0.181) (0.231) (0.218)
Demographic controls No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Baseline achievement No No Yes Yes Yes
Control mean  7.04  6.68 7.45
Observations  279  143 136
All StudentsBaseline Achievement
LowHighp-value
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A. ITT
Won lottery 0.463*** 0.480*** 0.452*** 0.822*** 0.082 0.003
(0.159) (0.160) (0.161) (0.209) (0.191)
Panel B. TOT
Enrolled in SU 0.541*** 0.558*** 0.524*** 0.940*** 0.096 0.003
(0.183) (0.182) (0.181) (0.231) (0.218)
Demographic controls No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Baseline achievement No No Yes Yes Yes
Control mean  7.04  6.68 7.45
Observations  279  143 136