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Table 9 presents ITT estimates representing the effect of a lottery offer on the likelihood of a violent/weapons-related and other disciplinary infractions in ninth grade. Although I do not find any evidence of reductions in the likelihood of violent/weapons-related infractions, I find substantial evidence of reductions in the likelihood of other disciplinary infractions in panel B. The point estimates in column 4 indicate that lottery winners in the full sample are around 10.3 percentage points less likely to have a reported other infraction in ninth grade. The point estimates in columns 4 and 5 reveal that this main effect is likely driven by lottery winners with low baseline achievement. The point estimate for lottery winners with low baseline achievement is 16.1 percentage points and statistically significant, while the point estimate for lottery winners with high baseline achievement is 4.6 percentage points and statistically indistinguishable from zero, although I cannot reject the null hypothesis of equality (p = 0.146).

Table 9.

The Effects of StudentU on Student Behavior (Intent-to-Treat)

All StudentsBaseline Achievement
LowHighp-value
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A. Violent/weapons infractions       
 −0.038 −0.036 −0.032 −0.021 −0.042 0.692 
 (0.034) (0.034) (0.035) (0.047) (0.040)  
Control mean 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.112 0.080  
Observations 279 279 279 136 143  
Panel B. Other infractions       
 −0.100** −0.113** −0.103** −0.161*** −0.046 0.146 
 (0.046) (0.045) (0.045) (0.059) (0.060)  
Control mean 0.227 0.227 0.227 0.296 0.149  
Observations 279 279 279 136 143  
Demographic controls No Yes Yes Yes Yes  
Baseline achievement No No Yes Yes Yes  
All StudentsBaseline Achievement
LowHighp-value
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A. Violent/weapons infractions       
 −0.038 −0.036 −0.032 −0.021 −0.042 0.692 
 (0.034) (0.034) (0.035) (0.047) (0.040)  
Control mean 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.112 0.080  
Observations 279 279 279 136 143  
Panel B. Other infractions       
 −0.100** −0.113** −0.103** −0.161*** −0.046 0.146 
 (0.046) (0.045) (0.045) (0.059) (0.060)  
Control mean 0.227 0.227 0.227 0.296 0.149  
Observations 279 279 279 136 143  
Demographic controls No Yes Yes Yes Yes  
Baseline achievement No No Yes Yes Yes  

Notes: The dependent variable in panel A is an indicator that takes on the value of one if the student was reported for at least one violent/weapons-related disciplinary infraction in ninth grade, and the dependent variable in panel B is an indicator that takes on the value of one if the student was reported for at least one other disciplinary infraction in ninth grade. The sample is comprised of the 2012—14 StudentU cohorts (lottery winners and losers). Specifications with demographic controls include female, black, Hispanic, economically disadvantaged in fifth grade, age (at the beginning of fifth grade), charter enrollment in fifth grade, gifted in fifth grade, special education in fifth grade, and English learner in fifth grade. Specifications with baseline achievement controls include math achievement in fifth grade and reading achievement in fifth grade. Models estimated on the full sample and by separately baseline achievement include cohort fixed-effects and cohort fixed-effects interacted with student gender. Robust standard errors are reported in parentheses.

Asterisks denote statistical significance: *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.

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