Table 9 presents ITT estimates representing the effect of a lottery offer on the likelihood of a violent/weapons-related and other disciplinary infractions in ninth grade. Although I do not find any evidence of reductions in the likelihood of violent/weapons-related infractions, I find substantial evidence of reductions in the likelihood of other disciplinary infractions in panel B. The point estimates in column 4 indicate that lottery winners in the full sample are around 10.3 percentage points less likely to have a reported other infraction in ninth grade. The point estimates in columns 4 and 5 reveal that this main effect is likely driven by lottery winners with low baseline achievement. The point estimate for lottery winners with low baseline achievement is 16.1 percentage points and statistically significant, while the point estimate for lottery winners with high baseline achievement is 4.6 percentage points and statistically indistinguishable from zero, although I cannot reject the null hypothesis of equality (p = 0.146).

Table 9.

The Effects of StudentU on Student Behavior (Intent-to-Treat)

All StudentsBaseline Achievement
LowHighp-value
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A. Violent/weapons infractions
−0.038 −0.036 −0.032 −0.021 −0.042 0.692
(0.034) (0.034) (0.035) (0.047) (0.040)
Control mean 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.112 0.080
Observations 279 279 279 136 143
Panel B. Other infractions
−0.100** −0.113** −0.103** −0.161*** −0.046 0.146
(0.046) (0.045) (0.045) (0.059) (0.060)
Control mean 0.227 0.227 0.227 0.296 0.149
Observations 279 279 279 136 143
Demographic controls No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Baseline achievement No No Yes Yes Yes
All StudentsBaseline Achievement
LowHighp-value
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Panel A. Violent/weapons infractions
−0.038 −0.036 −0.032 −0.021 −0.042 0.692
(0.034) (0.034) (0.035) (0.047) (0.040)
Control mean 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.112 0.080
Observations 279 279 279 136 143
Panel B. Other infractions
−0.100** −0.113** −0.103** −0.161*** −0.046 0.146
(0.046) (0.045) (0.045) (0.059) (0.060)
Control mean 0.227 0.227 0.227 0.296 0.149
Observations 279 279 279 136 143
Demographic controls No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Baseline achievement No No Yes Yes Yes