Reference . | Subjects . | Treatment . | Modality . | Outcome defintion . | Features . | Model . | Validation . | Performance . |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Jaworska et al. (2019) | 51 MDD | NDRI (bupropion), SSRI (escitalopram), or combination of both | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in MADRS | Demographics, baseline, & Week 1 clinical data, EEG power features, current source density | Random forest | 10-fold CV | Acc 88% |

SE 77% | ||||||||

SP 99% | ||||||||

Zhdanov et al. (2020) | 122 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram) | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in MADRS | Electrode-level & source-level spectral features, multiscale entropy-based & microstate-based features | SVM | Leave-one-site-out CV (LOSOCV) | BAC 79% |

SE 67% | ||||||||

SP 91% | ||||||||

Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. (2010) | 22 MDD | SSRI (mainly sertraline) | rsEEG | Response: ≥25% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Spectral coherence, mutual information between electrode pairs, absolute & relative power spectral density | Kernel partial least squares regression | Nested CV | Acc 87% |

SE 88% | ||||||||

SP 86% | ||||||||

Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. (2013) | 22 TRD | SSRI (sertraline, citalopram, fluvoxamine, or paroxetine) | rsEEG | Response: ≥30% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Power spectral density, squared spectral coherence, mutual information, left-to-right hemispheres, & anterior/posterior power ratio | Mixture of factor analysis | k-fold CV | Acc 88% |

SE 95% | ||||||||

SP 81% | ||||||||

Rabinoff et al. (2011) | 25 MDD | SSRI (fluoxetine) or SNRI (venlafaxine) | rsEEG | Response: HAMD-17 ≤ 10 | Absolute & relative power, cordance features | Classification and regression trees (CART) | LOOCV | BAC 93% |

SE 85% | ||||||||

SP 100% | ||||||||

Shahabi, Shalbaf, and Maghsoudi (2021) | 30 MDD | SSRI (type not specified) | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in BDI | 3D images constructed from EEG signal | Convolutional neural networks | 10-fold CV | Acc 97% |

SE 96% | ||||||||

SP 97% | ||||||||

W. Wu et al. (2020) | 109 MDD (sertraline), 119 MDD (placebo) | SSRI (sertraline) | rsEEG | Δ in HAMD-17 | Theta, alpha, beta, gamma band power of latent signal | Linear regression | 10-fold CV | (R^{2} = 0.36) |

r = 0.60 | ||||||||

RMSE = 5.68 | ||||||||

p = 2.88 × 10^{−11} | ||||||||

Rajpurkar et al. (2020) | 518 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram, sertraline) or SNRI (venlafaxine) | rsEEG | Δ in HAMD-21 (individual symptoms) | Absolute & relative power of delta, theta, alpha, beta, & gamma frequency bands in frontal & occipital regions | Gradient-boosted decision trees (GBDT) | 5-fold stratified CV | Concordance index of ≥0.8 on 12 out of 21 symptoms |

R^{2} 0.3–0.7 | ||||||||

Khodayari-Rostamabad, Reilly, Hasey, de Bruin, and MacCrimmon (2011) | 27 TRD | rTMS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Anterior/posterior power ratios at various frequencies | Mixture of factor analysis | k-fold CV | Acc 80% |

(BAC 81%) | ||||||||

SE 78% | ||||||||

SP 83% | ||||||||

N. Bailey et al. (2019) | 50 TRD | rTMS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Mood features, theta & alpha power & connectivity, frontal theta cordance & alpha peak frequency | SVM | 5-fold CV | BAC 86% |

SE 84% | ||||||||

SP 89% | ||||||||

Hasanzadeh et al. (2019) | 46 MDD | rTMS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 or BDI-II | Nonlinear, power spectral density, bispectrum, frontal & prefrontal cordance | k-nearest neighbors | LOOCV | BAC 91% |

SE 87% | ||||||||

SP 96% | ||||||||

Al-Kaysi et al. (2017) | 10 MDD | tDCS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in MADRS | Power spectral density in delta, theta, alpha, beta, & gamma frequency bands | SVM, LDA, extreme learning machine | LOOCV | Mood Labels Channels FC4-AF8: Acc 76%; Cognition Labels Channels CPz-CP2: Acc 92% |

Tian et al. (2020) | 106 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram) | rsfMRI | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Multilayer modularity framework applied to the whole brain to obtain measures of functional integration & segregation among 95 ROIs | SVM | Leave-one-site-out CV (LOSOCV) | BAC 71% |

Klöbl et al. (2020) | 29 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram) | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17; Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17; Remission: HAMD-17 ≤ 7 | Whole-brain FC | Linear regression | k-fold CV | HAMD-sum: r = 0.51 |

Response: BAC 60%, AUC 68% | ||||||||

Remission: BAC 68%, AUC 73% | ||||||||

Chin Fatt et al. (2020) | 132 MDD (sertraline), 132 MDD (placebo) | SSRI (sertraline) | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17 | Cortical & subcortical seed-based FC | Linear mixed model | LOOCV | (R^{2} = 0.05–0.13) |

r = 0.22–0.36 | ||||||||

Korgaonkar et al. (2020) | 163 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram, sertraline) or SNRI (venlafaxine) | rsfMRI | Remission: HAMD-17 ≤ 7 | Whole-brain network intrinsic FC | Logistic regression | Hold-out test set | Average connectivity measures: |

Acc 69% | ||||||||

(BAC 67%) | ||||||||

SE 58% | ||||||||

SP 76% | ||||||||

Individual network connectivity: | ||||||||

Acc 69% | ||||||||

(BAC 68%) | ||||||||

SE 63% | ||||||||

SP 72% | ||||||||

Nemati et al. (2020) | 99 MDD (sertraline), 103 MDD (placebo), & 19 MDD (ketamine), 19 MDD (active control), 18 MDD (inactive control) | SSRI (sertraline), ketamine | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17 | Network restricted connectivity | Network restricted strength predictive (linear) model | 10-fold CV | Sertraline (vs. placebo): r = 0.27 (R^{2} = 0.07), p = 0.003; Ketamine (vs. active placebo): r = 0.57 (R^{2} = 0.32), p = 0.0002 |

Fan et al. (2020) | 97 MDD (sertraline), 103 MDD (placebo) | SSRI (sertraline) | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17 (%) | Network restricted connectivity | Network restricted strength predictive (linear) model | 10-fold CV | Response to sertaline or placebo: (R^{2} = 0.04) r = 0.19, p = 0.03 |

Ju et al. (2020) | 108 MDD | Various drugs; primarily: paroxetine, other SSRIs, sedative hypnotics, NDRI (bupropion) | rsEEG | Δ in HAMD-24 | Whole-brain FC matrices | Connectome-based predictive modeling | LOOCV | r = 0.43 (R^{2} = 0.19), p = 2.73 × 10^{−6} |

Kong et al. (2021) | 82 MDD | Antidepressants (type not specified) | rsfMRI | Response: >50% ↓ in HAMD-21 | Dynamic functional networks | Spatiotemporal graph convolutional network | 10-fold CV | Acc 90% |

(BAC 89%) | ||||||||

SE 85% | ||||||||

SP 93% | ||||||||

Drysdale et al. (2017) | 154 MDD | rTMS | rsfMRI | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Whole-brain FC matrices & biotype diagnosis | SVM | LOOCV | Only FC feature: Acc 78.3% |

FC features & biotype diagnosis: Acc 89.6% | ||||||||

Van Waarde et al. (2015) | 45 severe/TRD | ECT | rsfMRI | Remission: MADRS score ≤ 10 | Standard group ICA extracted 25 rs-networks. Each network was used to train a classifier | SVM | LOOCV | Two rs-networks had significant accuracy: dmPFC: BAC 85%; SE 84%; SP 85%; ACC: BAC 78%; SE 80%; SP 75% |

Leaver et al. (2018) | 46 TRD | ECT | rsfMRI, sMRI, arterial spin labeled fMRI | Response: average % improvement in HAMD-17, MADRS, and QIDS-SR. Split point was 42.2% reduction. | Mean voxelwise cerebral blood flow, regional homogeneity, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, gray matter volume | SVM | Nested CV | BAC 58–68% |

SE 54–64% | ||||||||

SP 55–74% | ||||||||

Sun et al. (2020) | 122 MDD or bipolar disorder | ECT | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17; Remission: HAMD-17 score < 7 | Negatively & positively correlated FC networks based on whole-brain rsFC | Linear regression | LOOCV | Negative FC networks: |

r = 0.51 | ||||||||

(R^{2} = 0.26) | ||||||||

Acc 76% | ||||||||

(BAC 72%) | ||||||||

SE 51% | ||||||||

SP 92% |

Reference . | Subjects . | Treatment . | Modality . | Outcome defintion . | Features . | Model . | Validation . | Performance . |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Jaworska et al. (2019) | 51 MDD | NDRI (bupropion), SSRI (escitalopram), or combination of both | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in MADRS | Demographics, baseline, & Week 1 clinical data, EEG power features, current source density | Random forest | 10-fold CV | Acc 88% |

SE 77% | ||||||||

SP 99% | ||||||||

Zhdanov et al. (2020) | 122 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram) | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in MADRS | Electrode-level & source-level spectral features, multiscale entropy-based & microstate-based features | SVM | Leave-one-site-out CV (LOSOCV) | BAC 79% |

SE 67% | ||||||||

SP 91% | ||||||||

Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. (2010) | 22 MDD | SSRI (mainly sertraline) | rsEEG | Response: ≥25% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Spectral coherence, mutual information between electrode pairs, absolute & relative power spectral density | Kernel partial least squares regression | Nested CV | Acc 87% |

SE 88% | ||||||||

SP 86% | ||||||||

Khodayari-Rostamabad et al. (2013) | 22 TRD | SSRI (sertraline, citalopram, fluvoxamine, or paroxetine) | rsEEG | Response: ≥30% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Power spectral density, squared spectral coherence, mutual information, left-to-right hemispheres, & anterior/posterior power ratio | Mixture of factor analysis | k-fold CV | Acc 88% |

SE 95% | ||||||||

SP 81% | ||||||||

Rabinoff et al. (2011) | 25 MDD | SSRI (fluoxetine) or SNRI (venlafaxine) | rsEEG | Response: HAMD-17 ≤ 10 | Absolute & relative power, cordance features | Classification and regression trees (CART) | LOOCV | BAC 93% |

SE 85% | ||||||||

SP 100% | ||||||||

Shahabi, Shalbaf, and Maghsoudi (2021) | 30 MDD | SSRI (type not specified) | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in BDI | 3D images constructed from EEG signal | Convolutional neural networks | 10-fold CV | Acc 97% |

SE 96% | ||||||||

SP 97% | ||||||||

W. Wu et al. (2020) | 109 MDD (sertraline), 119 MDD (placebo) | SSRI (sertraline) | rsEEG | Δ in HAMD-17 | Theta, alpha, beta, gamma band power of latent signal | Linear regression | 10-fold CV | (R^{2} = 0.36) |

r = 0.60 | ||||||||

RMSE = 5.68 | ||||||||

p = 2.88 × 10^{−11} | ||||||||

Rajpurkar et al. (2020) | 518 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram, sertraline) or SNRI (venlafaxine) | rsEEG | Δ in HAMD-21 (individual symptoms) | Absolute & relative power of delta, theta, alpha, beta, & gamma frequency bands in frontal & occipital regions | Gradient-boosted decision trees (GBDT) | 5-fold stratified CV | Concordance index of ≥0.8 on 12 out of 21 symptoms |

R^{2} 0.3–0.7 | ||||||||

Khodayari-Rostamabad, Reilly, Hasey, de Bruin, and MacCrimmon (2011) | 27 TRD | rTMS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Anterior/posterior power ratios at various frequencies | Mixture of factor analysis | k-fold CV | Acc 80% |

(BAC 81%) | ||||||||

SE 78% | ||||||||

SP 83% | ||||||||

N. Bailey et al. (2019) | 50 TRD | rTMS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Mood features, theta & alpha power & connectivity, frontal theta cordance & alpha peak frequency | SVM | 5-fold CV | BAC 86% |

SE 84% | ||||||||

SP 89% | ||||||||

Hasanzadeh et al. (2019) | 46 MDD | rTMS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 or BDI-II | Nonlinear, power spectral density, bispectrum, frontal & prefrontal cordance | k-nearest neighbors | LOOCV | BAC 91% |

SE 87% | ||||||||

SP 96% | ||||||||

Al-Kaysi et al. (2017) | 10 MDD | tDCS | rsEEG | Response: ≥50% ↓ in MADRS | Power spectral density in delta, theta, alpha, beta, & gamma frequency bands | SVM, LDA, extreme learning machine | LOOCV | Mood Labels Channels FC4-AF8: Acc 76%; Cognition Labels Channels CPz-CP2: Acc 92% |

Tian et al. (2020) | 106 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram) | rsfMRI | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Multilayer modularity framework applied to the whole brain to obtain measures of functional integration & segregation among 95 ROIs | SVM | Leave-one-site-out CV (LOSOCV) | BAC 71% |

Klöbl et al. (2020) | 29 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram) | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17; Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17; Remission: HAMD-17 ≤ 7 | Whole-brain FC | Linear regression | k-fold CV | HAMD-sum: r = 0.51 |

Response: BAC 60%, AUC 68% | ||||||||

Remission: BAC 68%, AUC 73% | ||||||||

Chin Fatt et al. (2020) | 132 MDD (sertraline), 132 MDD (placebo) | SSRI (sertraline) | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17 | Cortical & subcortical seed-based FC | Linear mixed model | LOOCV | (R^{2} = 0.05–0.13) |

r = 0.22–0.36 | ||||||||

Korgaonkar et al. (2020) | 163 MDD | SSRI (escitalopram, sertraline) or SNRI (venlafaxine) | rsfMRI | Remission: HAMD-17 ≤ 7 | Whole-brain network intrinsic FC | Logistic regression | Hold-out test set | Average connectivity measures: |

Acc 69% | ||||||||

(BAC 67%) | ||||||||

SE 58% | ||||||||

SP 76% | ||||||||

Individual network connectivity: | ||||||||

Acc 69% | ||||||||

(BAC 68%) | ||||||||

SE 63% | ||||||||

SP 72% | ||||||||

Nemati et al. (2020) | 99 MDD (sertraline), 103 MDD (placebo), & 19 MDD (ketamine), 19 MDD (active control), 18 MDD (inactive control) | SSRI (sertraline), ketamine | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17 | Network restricted connectivity | Network restricted strength predictive (linear) model | 10-fold CV | Sertraline (vs. placebo): r = 0.27 (R^{2} = 0.07), p = 0.003; Ketamine (vs. active placebo): r = 0.57 (R^{2} = 0.32), p = 0.0002 |

Fan et al. (2020) | 97 MDD (sertraline), 103 MDD (placebo) | SSRI (sertraline) | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17 (%) | Network restricted connectivity | Network restricted strength predictive (linear) model | 10-fold CV | Response to sertaline or placebo: (R^{2} = 0.04) r = 0.19, p = 0.03 |

Ju et al. (2020) | 108 MDD | Various drugs; primarily: paroxetine, other SSRIs, sedative hypnotics, NDRI (bupropion) | rsEEG | Δ in HAMD-24 | Whole-brain FC matrices | Connectome-based predictive modeling | LOOCV | r = 0.43 (R^{2} = 0.19), p = 2.73 × 10^{−6} |

Kong et al. (2021) | 82 MDD | Antidepressants (type not specified) | rsfMRI | Response: >50% ↓ in HAMD-21 | Dynamic functional networks | Spatiotemporal graph convolutional network | 10-fold CV | Acc 90% |

(BAC 89%) | ||||||||

SE 85% | ||||||||

SP 93% | ||||||||

Drysdale et al. (2017) | 154 MDD | rTMS | rsfMRI | Response: ≥50% ↓ in HAMD-17 | Whole-brain FC matrices & biotype diagnosis | SVM | LOOCV | Only FC feature: Acc 78.3% |

FC features & biotype diagnosis: Acc 89.6% | ||||||||

Van Waarde et al. (2015) | 45 severe/TRD | ECT | rsfMRI | Remission: MADRS score ≤ 10 | Standard group ICA extracted 25 rs-networks. Each network was used to train a classifier | SVM | LOOCV | Two rs-networks had significant accuracy: dmPFC: BAC 85%; SE 84%; SP 85%; ACC: BAC 78%; SE 80%; SP 75% |

Leaver et al. (2018) | 46 TRD | ECT | rsfMRI, sMRI, arterial spin labeled fMRI | Response: average % improvement in HAMD-17, MADRS, and QIDS-SR. Split point was 42.2% reduction. | Mean voxelwise cerebral blood flow, regional homogeneity, fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, gray matter volume | SVM | Nested CV | BAC 58–68% |

SE 54–64% | ||||||||

SP 55–74% | ||||||||

Sun et al. (2020) | 122 MDD or bipolar disorder | ECT | rsfMRI | Δ in HAMD-17; Remission: HAMD-17 score < 7 | Negatively & positively correlated FC networks based on whole-brain rsFC | Linear regression | LOOCV | Negative FC networks: |

r = 0.51 | ||||||||

(R^{2} = 0.26) | ||||||||

Acc 76% | ||||||||

(BAC 72%) | ||||||||

SE 51% | ||||||||

SP 92% |

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