Table 1 shows student- and school-level descriptive statistics by treatment status and pre- and post-treatment periods (panels A and B). As can be seen from the two panels, the means of many of the student- and school-level baseline covariates are similar between untreated and treated groups when the sample is restricted within the bandwidth of 0.03 and 0.07. Panel C presents student achievements, and it is clear from the panel that the share of below-average students is higher for treated groups in the pretreatment period. The table also includes statistics on other information such as school funding level and the average number of test takers (Panel D). The average per pupil funding is about $3,500. The total number of schools is 594 for untreated groups and 196 for treated groups. The average number of test takers for the untreated group is 182 and 167 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. For the treated group, the average number of test takers is 125 and 114 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Note that the share of test takers is almost 100 percent due to the mandatory nature of the exam. Thus, our study is less likely to suffer from attrition bias. Table 1. Descriptive Statistics Pretreatment (year 2009)Post-treatment (year 2010) UntreatedTreatedUntreatedTreated VariablesMeanStd.MeanStd.MeanStd.MeanStd. Panel A: Student Characteristics % female students 0.48 0.08 0.48 0.13 0.47 0.09 0.47 0.16 % preparing schoolwork 0.37 0.11 0.33 0.15 0.35 0.14 0.33 0.18 % reviewing schoolwork 0.43 0.11 0.41 0.15 0.47 0.14 0.49 0.21 % taking online lectures 0.53 0.11 0.51 0.17 0.64 0.16 0.50 0.22 Avg. no. of family members 3.18 0.22 3.26 0.45 3.17 0.25 3.24 0.37 Panel B: School Characteristics % master's degree or higher 0.22 0.15 0.23 0.19 0.23 0.16 0.24 0.19 % newly hired teachers 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.15 % operating after school 0.92 0.27 0.90 0.30 0.94 0.23 0.98 0.12 % operating summer school 0.81 0.39 0.88 0.33 0.82 0.38 0.94 0.23 % utilizing outside resources 0.63 0.48 0.53 0.50 0.63 0.48 0.72 0.45 % using customized materials 0.84 0.36 0.73 0.44 0.83 0.37 0.92 0.28 Panel C: Achievement (% below average students) Reading 0.30 0.09 0.36 0.13 0.28 0.11 0.25 0.17 Mathematics 0.23 0.08 0.29 0.12 0.33 0.13 0.27 0.19 English 0.28 0.10 0.36 0.14 0.27 0.12 0.26 0.18 Social studies 0.41 0.09 0.46 0.13 0.33 0.13 0.27 0.19 Science 0.18 0.07 0.22 0.10 0.21 0.10 0.16 0.14 Panel D: Other Information Average number of test takers 182 114 125 100 167 108 114 93 Average per pupil funding (2010)$3,122 (1,663) $3,761 (2,038) Total number of schools 594 196 594 196 Pretreatment (year 2009)Post-treatment (year 2010) UntreatedTreatedUntreatedTreated VariablesMeanStd.MeanStd.MeanStd.MeanStd. Panel A: Student Characteristics % female students 0.48 0.08 0.48 0.13 0.47 0.09 0.47 0.16 % preparing schoolwork 0.37 0.11 0.33 0.15 0.35 0.14 0.33 0.18 % reviewing schoolwork 0.43 0.11 0.41 0.15 0.47 0.14 0.49 0.21 % taking online lectures 0.53 0.11 0.51 0.17 0.64 0.16 0.50 0.22 Avg. no. of family members 3.18 0.22 3.26 0.45 3.17 0.25 3.24 0.37 Panel B: School Characteristics % master's degree or higher 0.22 0.15 0.23 0.19 0.23 0.16 0.24 0.19 % newly hired teachers 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.15 % operating after school 0.92 0.27 0.90 0.30 0.94 0.23 0.98 0.12 % operating summer school 0.81 0.39 0.88 0.33 0.82 0.38 0.94 0.23 % utilizing outside resources 0.63 0.48 0.53 0.50 0.63 0.48 0.72 0.45 % using customized materials 0.84 0.36 0.73 0.44 0.83 0.37 0.92 0.28 Panel C: Achievement (% below average students) Reading 0.30 0.09 0.36 0.13 0.28 0.11 0.25 0.17 Mathematics 0.23 0.08 0.29 0.12 0.33 0.13 0.27 0.19 English 0.28 0.10 0.36 0.14 0.27 0.12 0.26 0.18 Social studies 0.41 0.09 0.46 0.13 0.33 0.13 0.27 0.19 Science 0.18 0.07 0.22 0.10 0.21 0.10 0.16 0.14 Panel D: Other Information Average number of test takers 182 114 125 100 167 108 114 93 Average per pupil funding (2010)$3,122 (1,663) \$3,761 (2,038)
Total number of schools 594 196 594 196

Notes: The numbers in parentheses are standard deviations.

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