Table 3.

Results of one-tailed two-sample t tests evaluating whether the spectral means were higher for the /s/ stimuli than for the /∫/ stimuli for each combination of Talker and Bias

Talker/BiasOriginalRecorded
Male, /s/-biased t(30) = 6.27, p < 0.0001, * t(30) = 3.39, p = 0.0010, * 
Female, /∫/-biased t(30) = 5.56, p < 0.0001, * t(30) = −2.93, p = 0.9968, n.s. 
Male, /∫/-biased t(30) = 5.74, p < 0.0001, * t(30) = 1.26, p = 0.1081, n.s. 
Female, /s/-biased t(30) = 6.09, p < 0.001, * t(30) = −1.46, p = 0.9224, n.s. 
Talker/BiasOriginalRecorded
Male, /s/-biased t(30) = 6.27, p < 0.0001, * t(30) = 3.39, p = 0.0010, * 
Female, /∫/-biased t(30) = 5.56, p < 0.0001, * t(30) = −2.93, p = 0.9968, n.s. 
Male, /∫/-biased t(30) = 5.74, p < 0.0001, * t(30) = 1.26, p = 0.1081, n.s. 
Female, /s/-biased t(30) = 6.09, p < 0.001, * t(30) = −1.46, p = 0.9224, n.s. 

Note. * indicates significance at an alpha of 0.05/8 = 0.00625 (Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons). Results indicate that the acoustic difference between /s/ and /∫/—a key prerequisite for lexically guided perceptual learning—was disrupted by the insert headphones used in the scanner.

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