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Table 2.

Effects of individual constraints

ConstraintStatusPairsEffect size
*[−cont] [−cont] INONSET natural cping/sping, ctice/stice 1.65 
*[glide] INCODA natural jouy/jout, tighw/tibe 1.56 
*[−cons] [+cons] INONSET natural hlup/plup, hmit/smit 1.51 
*[−cont] [+nasal] INONSET natural cnope/clope, pneck/sneck 1.44 
*[+labial] [+dorsal] INCODA natural rufk/ruft, trefk/treft 1.44 
*[+dorsal] [+labial] INCODA natural bikf/bimf, sadekp/sadect 1.36 
*[+cons] [−cons] INCODA natural shapenr/shapent, tilr/tilse 1.34 
*[−son] [+son] INCODA natural canifl/canift, kipl/kilp 1.31 
*[+labial] [+labial] INONSET natural bwell/brell, pwickon/twickon 1.23 
graphic
 
unnatural hethker/hethler, muthpy/muspy 1.14 
graphic
 
unnatural potho/pothy, taitho/taithy 1.10 
graphic
 
unnatural boitcher/boisser, noiron/nyron 1.10 
graphic
 
unnatural foushert/fousert, pyshon/pyson 1.08 
graphic
 
unnatural ooker/ocker, utrum/otrum 1.03 
*[−back] [+diphthong] unnatural youse/yoss, yout/yut 1.02 
graphic
 
unnatural oid/oit, ouzie/oussie 1.02 
graphic
 
unnatural zhep/zhem, zhod/zhar 1.01 
graphic
 
unnatural ishty/ishmy, metchter/metchner 0.99 
graphic
 
natural esger/ezger, trocdal/troctal 0.98 
graphic
 
unnatural luhallem/laihallem, tuhaim/towhaim 0.97 
ConstraintStatusPairsEffect size
*[−cont] [−cont] INONSET natural cping/sping, ctice/stice 1.65 
*[glide] INCODA natural jouy/jout, tighw/tibe 1.56 
*[−cons] [+cons] INONSET natural hlup/plup, hmit/smit 1.51 
*[−cont] [+nasal] INONSET natural cnope/clope, pneck/sneck 1.44 
*[+labial] [+dorsal] INCODA natural rufk/ruft, trefk/treft 1.44 
*[+dorsal] [+labial] INCODA natural bikf/bimf, sadekp/sadect 1.36 
*[+cons] [−cons] INCODA natural shapenr/shapent, tilr/tilse 1.34 
*[−son] [+son] INCODA natural canifl/canift, kipl/kilp 1.31 
*[+labial] [+labial] INONSET natural bwell/brell, pwickon/twickon 1.23 
graphic
 
unnatural hethker/hethler, muthpy/muspy 1.14 
graphic
 
unnatural potho/pothy, taitho/taithy 1.10 
graphic
 
unnatural boitcher/boisser, noiron/nyron 1.10 
graphic
 
unnatural foushert/fousert, pyshon/pyson 1.08 
graphic
 
unnatural ooker/ocker, utrum/otrum 1.03 
*[−back] [+diphthong] unnatural youse/yoss, yout/yut 1.02 
graphic
 
unnatural oid/oit, ouzie/oussie 1.02 
graphic
 
unnatural zhep/zhem, zhod/zhar 1.01 
graphic
 
unnatural ishty/ishmy, metchter/metchner 0.99 
graphic
 
natural esger/ezger, trocdal/troctal 0.98 
graphic
 
unnatural luhallem/laihallem, tuhaim/towhaim 0.97 
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